EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality https://eqa.unibo.it/ <p><strong>EQA – ISSN 2281-4485</strong> is an international, multidisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal that encourages high-quality submissions of original research or brief reviews and analyses dealing with the aspects concerning soil, water and air quality and the sustainable use of these environmental resources.</p> Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna en-US EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality 2039-9898 <p>Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p> <p>Articles published since 2020 are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>:</p> <div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://licensebuttons.net/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div> <p> </p> <p>Previous articles are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>:</p> <div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div> Adsorption of various heavy metals through dehydrated powder of two aquatic plants (Lemna minor and Eichhornia crassipes) from aqueous medium https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/17086 <p>Different heavy metals can be eliminated by non-living or living biomass. Various aquatic plants species can be applied for the removal of metals. In this research, cadmium, copper, zinc and lead adsorption properties of <em>Lemna minor </em>L. and <em>Eichhornia crassipes </em>(Mart.) Solms were examined. This work was carried in the laboratory to ascertain the efficiency of aquatic plants <em>Eichhornia crassipes</em> and <em>Lemna minor</em> on the removal of various metals. Two plants<em> Lemna minor</em> and <em>Eichhornia crassipes </em>were obtained in a dehydrated powder type. The adsorption procedure of various metals was investigated under different pH ranges, metal ion concentration and reaction times as well as noticed the chemical composition of these plants. The results indicated that both submerged aquatic plant powders can be effectively used for heavy metal elimination under various factors. The FTIR spectra analysis showed a various functional groups in both aquatic plants, they accelerated the adsorption process.</p> Ghulam Murtaza Muhammad Usman Maham Arif Copyright (c) 2023 Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Usman, Maham Arif https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-24 2023-08-24 57 1 9 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/17086 Resettlement, spatiotemporal dynamics of land use/cover and livelihood aspects in Chewaka district, southwestern Ethiopia https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/15747 <p>Ethiopia has a long tradition of resettling people from drought-prone and degraded areas to sparsely populated parts of the country. This study aimed to investigate resettlement, spatiotemporal dynamics of land use/cover and livelihood aspects in Chewaka district of Ethiopia. A combination of geospatial and socioeconomic data were utilized to attain the intended objectives. Through multistage sampling procedure, 384 households were selected from sample kebeles for household survey. Descriptive and inferential statistics along with multinomial logit model have been employed to analyze the data. The study found that resettlement has resulted in the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use/cover in Chewaka district. Rapid population growth following resettlement program, encroachment of farmland and settlement to vegetated areas, deforestation, human-induced forest fire, illegal settlement expansion, lack of land use plan, and poor management practices are driving unprecedented land use/cover change. It was also found that agriculture is the main economic activity and basis of livelihoods in the study area. Besides, resettlers pursue non/off-farm activities to generate additional income and cope with the challenges of their livelihoods. The study suggests urgent attention on improving infrastructure and social services, environment conservation, controlling illegal settlement expansions and human-induced forest fire as well as supporting resettlers to diversify their income sources for betterment of livelihoods in the area.</p> Alemayehu Abera Copyright (c) 2023 Alemayehu Abera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-24 2023-08-24 57 10 23 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/15747 Iron biofortification: a much-needed strategy for prevailing conditions of micronutrient malnutrition https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/17111 <p>Micronutrient-malnutrition is one of the most serious battle human beings are fighting. The so-called Hidden hunger is all because of micronutrient deficiencies. Iron deficiency anemia is affecting more people than any other prevailing disorder. However, iron-supplementation aggravate the infectious diseases and present policies of iron therapy carefully evaluate the pros and cons. In current review, we have evaluated the biofortification approaches for combating hidden hunger, in the light of medical and nutritional advancements. Enhancement of iron in edible plant parts is expected to improve nutrient status of human beings via crops. The density of minerals and vitamins in staple foods consumed by the poor can be raised using either traditional plant breeding or transgenic approaches, a process known as biofortification. Microbial iron biofortification is a valuable approach for human being especially in developing countries where poor people cannot afford to buy expensive supplementation. Moreover, prevailing condition of Covid-19 demands a fighting immune system and iron is likely to play vital role in improving human immune system.</p> Zain Mushtaq Anum Nazir Muhammad Tauseef Jaffar Copyright (c) 2023 Zain Mushtaq, Anum Nazir, Muhammad Tauseef Jaffar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-24 2023-08-24 57 24 28 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/17111 How earthworm and fungi can save us from global food crisis and land degradation: A review https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/16077 <p>The human population is expected to be more than 9 billion by 2050. In order to feed this huge population, we would require about additional 60-70% food which is one of the major challenges ahead of humankind as well as to researchers. Although biotic stresses in soil such as microorganisms, insects, parasites, weeds are major reasons for reduced food production, abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature, soil salinity, natural disasters, pH imbalance are significantly affect the soil quality. There is not only degradation in soil quality but also a significant reduction in arable agricultural land in India affecting the productivity and nutrition values of the grains. Therefore, there is an urgent need to not only increase food production but also to maintain its nutritional quality. In addition, excess use of chemical fertilizers, increasing soil pollution and metal toxicity is becoming a serious threat and are responsible for reduced crop yield, crop failures and loss in agricultural economy worldwide. Moreover, the arable lands are not only shrinking due to industrialization, modernization and urbanization, ~50% of all arable land will be impacted by salinity by 2050. Indian continent is primarily agricultural driven and per capita land cover is decreasing day by day. On top of it, unregulated uses of chemical fertilizers are adding even more stress on the soil as well as produces greenhouse gases like N<sub>2</sub>O. Therefore, management of resources for future needs is ought to attain the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) which are related to zero hunger, no poverty, good health and well being. This review describes agronomical transformation through organic manure, biofertilizer, vermicomposting and mycoremediation. These techniques are essential for maintaining the soil quality as well as can act to approach sustainability in agriculture. The ecological engineering using earthworms for enhancing and restoring soil fertility is discussed in detail along with Mycoremediation of toxins and salt by utilizing macro and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi.</p> Janvi Sharma Sadashiv Chaturvedi Kirpa Ram Sinha Sahab Copyright (c) 2023 Janvi Sharma, Sadashiv Chaturvedi, Kirpa Ram, Sinha Sahab https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-05 2023-09-05 57 29 39 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/16077 Heavy metal concentration from gas flaring sites in Umuebulu Etche l.g.a and Agbada II in ObioAkpor/Ikwere l.g.a, Rivers State, Nigeria https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/17094 <p>Heavy metal contamination is of great concern due to its effect as being carcinogenic in nature. Heavy metal concentration was determined in bitter leaf, plantain leaf, cassava leaf, cassava tuber, pepper leaf, pepper fruit, pawpaw leaf, pawpaw fruit, water leaf around gas flaring sites in Umuebulu Etche LGA and Agbada II in Obio/Akpor LGA Rivers State. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for the determination of heavy metals (cadmium, arsenic, lead and chromium) concentration in the samples. These samples were subjected to standard laboratory analysis for the determination of heavy metals (cadmium, arsenic, lead and chromium) concentration. The concentrations of lead arsenic in crop samples from Agbada II and Umuebulu are below FAO/WHO permissible limit. The concentration of Chromium ranged from 0.000 to 0.410mg/kg in all the samples in Umuebulu and Agbada community. The concentration of chromium in bitter leaf, plantain leaf, pepper leaf, pepper fruit, cassava leaf, were above FAO/WHO permissible limit for both communities. The concentration of chromium in cassava tuber, pawpaw leaf, pawpaw fruit, water Leaf were below FAO/WHO permissible limit for Umuebulu and Agbada communities. The concentration of cadmium ranged from 0.000 to 1.4 mg/kg in all the samples in Umuebulu and Agbada community<strong>. </strong>Cadmium concentration in Bitter Leaf, Plantain Leaf, Pepper Leaf, Pepper Fruit were below FAO/WHO permissible limit except cassava leaf, cassava tuber cadmium concentration which are above FAO/WHO permissible limit for both communities. The study had shown that the crops harvested from the study area were polluted and can pose serious health problem to the humans and animals if consumed. Government and regulatory bodies should enforce the use of any of the flare gas recovery system (FGRS) to minimize the amount of gas being flared into the Environment.</p> Sordum Baridakara Rachel Enemuguem Barisi Samuel-Felix Barisi Samuel-Penu Copyright (c) 2023 Sordum Baridakara, Rachel Enemuguem, Barisi Samuel-Felix, Barisi Samuel-Penu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-05 2023-09-05 57 40 44 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/17094