EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality https://eqa.unibo.it/ <p><strong>EQA – ISSN 2281-4485</strong> is an international, multidisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal that encourages high-quality submissions of original research or brief reviews and analyses dealing with the aspects concerning soil, water and air quality and the sustainable use of these environmental resources.</p> Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna en-US EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality 2039-9898 <p>Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a> (<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> Heavy metal contamination of cassava (Manihot esculentum) grown on quarry soils in Umunneochi Abia state and its health implications https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12563 <p>Contamination of agricultural soils by quarry activities is posing serious challenges food security in greater parts of the Sub-Saharan Africa. This study determined the heavy metals in soils and cassava (Manihot esculentum) tubers obtained from three different quarry sites in Umunneochi, Abia State Nigeria. Samples of soil and cassava tubers were collected in replicates following the direction of natural drainage, while control samples were obtained against the direction of natural drainage from the quarry pits. Soil and cassava tuber samples were collected and subjected to standard physicochemical analyses. Heavy metal concentration in the quarry soil and cassava tubers varied significantly from the control except for Cd (mg/kg) at P&lt;0.05. All heavy metals identified in the soil were also present in the cassava tuber samples, with Al concentration in the quarry soils correlating positively (0.977**) with that of cassava tubers. The quarry activities contributed to the heavy metal levels of quarry soils and responsible for the accumulation of heavy metals in cassava tubers that could lead to food insecurity and public health concerns. This further brings to fore the challenges and need to review and update mining and quarry regulations in Nigeria.</p> Chinedu Emeka Ihejirika Evans Chibuzo Ndubuisi John Didacus Njoku Enos Ihediohamma Emereibeole Tochi Ezechi Ebe Roseline Feechi Njoku-Tony Onyenonachi Charity Ihejirika Ejeagba Okorie Imo Ikenna Ndubuisi Nwachukwu Etienne Chukwuma Chinakwe Chijioke Ndukwe Uyo Chinomso Eric Ezikeudu Nwaogwugwu Ngozi Ursula Copyright (c) 2021 Chinedu Emeka Ihejirika, Evans Chibuzo Ndubuisi, John Didacus Njoku, Enos Ihediohamma Emereibeole, Tochi Ezechi Ebe, Roseline Feechi Njoku-Tony, Onyenonachi Charity Ihejirika, Ejeagba Okorie Imo, Ikenna Ndubuisi Nwachukwu, Etienne Chukwuma Chinakwe, Chijioke Ndukwe Uyo, Chinomso Eric Ezikeudu, Nwaogwugwu Ngozi Ursula http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 45 1 9 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/12563 Home Gardens Management: Improving Soil Fertility and Total Microbe State (Case on Pacitan District, East Java, Indonesia) https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12288 <p>Research has been carried out to explore the potential for living the biological properties of the soil in three different home gardens systems. The research was conducted in Pacitan Regency, East Java on three home gardens systems namely the active home gardens, the passive home gardens (home gardens with low maintenance), and the critical land home gardens system (degraded land). Each consists of 20 sites. Observations were made on potential hydrogen (pH), organic carbon, organic matter, total N, total P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, available P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, total K<sub>2</sub>O, and total microbe. The results showed that the degraded home gardens were on poor soil fertility and total microbe state. Passive home gardens (low maintenance) could improve the quality of soil fertility and total microbe, especially on active management home gardens. </p> Titik Wijayanti Purwaning B. Lestari Debi Setiawati Copyright (c) 2021 Titik Wijayanti http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 45 10 16 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/12288 Comparison of Kinetics of Cr (III) Ions Removal from Wastewater Using Raw and Activated Montmorillonite Minerals https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12914 <p>In this study, kinetics of the removal of Cr (III) from the waters by adsorption have been investigated using montmorillonite natural clay that was obtained from the vicinity of Narman, Erzurum in Turkey. Activation energy, thermodynamic values and adsorption kinetics were determined. In addition, the trials were repeated by subjecting to the same adsorbent activation process. The values ​​found for these two adsorbents were compared. As a result of the experiments, the parameters affecting the adsorption kinetics were examined. It was determined that the adsorption process could be best depicted by pseudo second order reaction kinetics. Using pseudo second order reaction rate constants, ΔH° = -25.791 kJ mol<sup>-1</sup> and ΔS° = 106.19 joule mol<sup>-1</sup> were calculated for raw adsorbent. For the activated adsorbent, ΔH° = -18,806 kJ mol<sup>-1</sup> and ΔS° = 79.37 joule mol<sup>-1</sup> were calculated. That ΔG° increases as temperature increases indicates; adsorption is more spontaneous at high temperatures. Negative ΔH° values show that the reaction is exothermic. The positive values of ΔS° indicate increased randomness at the adsorbent/solution interface during the adsorption of chrome.</p> Şahset İrdemez Gül Durmuş Sinan Kul Fatma Ekmekyapar Torun Züleyha Bingül Copyright (c) 2021 Şahset İrdemez, Gül Durmuş, Sinan Kul, Fatma Ekmekyapar Torun, Züleyha Bingül http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 45 17 26 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/12914 Portable X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Water: Thin Film and Water Thickness Considerations https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12991 <p>Water is requisite for life and essential for many industries. Increasingly, global water supplies include inorganic contaminants leading to millions of deaths annually. High analytical cost and a lack of field portable methods have stymied the evaluation of contaminated water. By comparison, portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry has emerged as a method suitable for low cost, rapid analysis for many matrices yet few studies have evaluated liquids via PXRF. Herein, a novel means of assessing PXRF analytical performance for liquid matrices was evaluated on 1,440 samples comprised of three different standards (Pb, Cd, Cr) featuring three different film types (Kapton, Mylar, and Prolene) at five different liquid depths (4.29, 8.59, 17.18, 25.77 and 30.06 mm), and with four different concentrations (1,000, 500, 250, 125 μg/g). To adjust the PXRF values for a liquid matrix, regression models were fitted using PXRF reported values as the predictor and the true standard concentration values as the target. Results indicated that prior to statistical adjustment to PXRF reported values, increased liquid depth as well as Mylar or Kapton film provided optimal predictive accuracy. However, after PXRF adjustment (linear for Cr and Cd, quadratic for Pb), a depth of 4.29 mm and any of the three film types provided quality elemental predictions. After PXRF adjustment, the size of the mean of PXRF difference with the known standard concentration vs. the true standard concentration values became much smaller compared to the prior adjustment difference. Additionally, the size of the difference was usually smaller for the larger depth (25.77 and 30.06 mm).</p> Julia Kagiliery Somsubhra Chakraborty Bin Li Michael Hull David Weindorf Copyright (c) 2021 Julia Kagiliery, Somsubhra Chakraborty, Bin Li, Michael Hull, David Weindorf http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 45 27 41 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/12991 Investigating of environmental traffic noise modelling by using FHWA TNM in Tehran township https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12482 <p>There are several noise modeling software packages in order to predict noise level, each of them has different accuracy in different country. The present study was undertaken to analyze Traffic Noise Model software package (TNM) for two large highway in Tehran township. Firstly, field measurement for equivalent noise level (Leq) was carried out by sound level meter(SLM), then Leq prediction by the software was done. Finally, the results of the two previous steps were compared. the mean deviation of the results for sound levels below 80 dB was 0.33 dB, but for values further than 80 dB, the deviation was high. due to the obsolescence of a large number of the trucks inside Iran, new trucks instead of using software-defined trucks, were defined. With this change, the modeling and measurement results were more coordinated. The coefficient of determination (R2) increased from 0.4915 to 0.7312.</p> Zeinab Mohamady Alireza Noorpoor Majid Bayatian Copyright (c) 2021 Zeinab Mohamady, Alireza Noorpoor, Majid Bayatian http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 45 42 48 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/12482