EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality https://eqa.unibo.it/ <p><strong>EQA – ISSN 2281-4485</strong> is an international, multidisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal that encourages high-quality submissions of original research or brief reviews and analyses dealing with the aspects concerning soil, water and air quality and the sustainable use of these environmental resources.</p> Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna en-US EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality 2039-9898 <p>Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a> (<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> Low-cost digital mapping of soil organic carbon using optical spectrophotometer and Sentinel-2 image https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12071 <p>Nowadays, scientific research is involved to identifying methods for measuring and mapping some soil properties allowing the cost reduction for sampling and laboratory analyses. In the topic of precision agriculture, it is of interest to obtain accurate&nbsp;spatial distribution&nbsp;maps&nbsp;of soil&nbsp;organic carbon to drive fertilization and variable rate seeding. The aim of this work is to test the <sup>&nbsp;</sup> Pro spectrophotometer using both dry and wet topsoil color for the estimation of the total organic carbon (TOC) in a geographically limited area with relatively low soil variability. The relationships obtained using multiple linear regression (R2 of 0.54, p-value &lt; 0.001) were not very accurate due to a high variance between the measured and predicted values. However, starting from a soil geo-resistivity survey and free remote sensing images, this method has proved effective in increasing the number of measured points thus making an important contribution to the creation of an interpolated precision maps of soil organic carbon, calibrated for the study area.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Roberto Barbetti Copyright (c) 2021 Roberto Barbetti http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 44 1 8 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/12071 Microbial load and biodegradation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by microorganisms at different stages of discharge https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/11667 <p>The raw palm oil mill (POME) effluent has an extremely high content of degradable organic matters as a result of unrecovered palm oil during production of palm oil. The aim of this study is to evaluate the microbial load and biodegradation of POME by microorganisms at different stages of discharge. Standard dilution methods were used for the isolation of bacteria and fungi. The estimation of colony forming unit per mL (cfu/mL) was assessed using 10-fold serial dilution method. The results showed that the total microbial count (TMC) decreased with time. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) further revealed a significant variation in microbial load after 28 days of discharge. This was followed by a significant decrease after 36 days when compared with other samples. The physicochemical studies further revealed the presence of relatively low levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. The concentration of nitrate was relatively high, 70.13 mg/L. The biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) were also high 2250mg/L and 3360mg/L respectively. High BOD and COD values are important indicators of high organic and inorganic components of the effluent and possible negative environmental consequences. The presence of the following species Clostridium, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Micrococcus implied possible degradation of the effluent. </p> Ejeagba Okorie Imo Chinedu Emeka Ihejirika Copyright (c) 2021 EJEAGBA OKORIE IMO, Chinedu Emeka Ihejirika http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 44 9 17 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/11667 Trace element atmospheric deposition and trends in Venice Lagoon (Italy) https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/11886 <p>Atmospheric deposition data on trace elements from ten bulk sampler stations in the Venice Lagoon, covering a period spanning from 2007 to 2017, are presented and discussed. Results have been statistically analysed and used to estimate fall-out loads on the Lagoon. The Venice Lagoon is not only exposed to long-range transport of contaminants but it is also affected by local urban and industrial emissions. A sharp drop off of the Cd load since 2011 has been observed tied up with decreasing flux recorded at the station in the nearby glass-making district, where decreasing trends have also been detected for other elements. Decreasing long-term trends have been observed for Ni and Sb loads while Zn load has shown a small increase.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Massimo Berti Sebastiano Bertini Andrea Berton Claudio Carrer Francesco Sorrentino Copyright (c) 2021 Massimo Berti, Sebastiano Bertini, Andrea Berton, Claudio Carrer http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 44 18 25 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/11886 Multivariate statistical evaluation of dissolved trace elements and water quality assessment in the Karaca dam, Turkey https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12231 <p>This study was performed from January 2017 to December 2017 with taking samples every month from four stations to determine the water quality of Karaca Dam, located in Sinop. The guidelines of the World Health Organization for water quality index (WQI) and Turkey’s Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs specifications for Surface Water Quality Regulations (SWQR) were used in the determination of water quality and 28 variables were analyzed. The quality of the irrigation water was also calculated. This objective, the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage, permeability index (PI), and magnesium index were calculated. The average WQI value of the lake was found to be 19.23. It was observed that the water quality parameters did not exceed the restrictions in any stations during the period. According to the results of the research, Karaca Dam is in a good class in terms of drinking water quality and irrigation water. The health risk evaluation, using the hazard ratio and index (HI), was carried out as suggested by USEPA, and it was found that the water of Karaca Dam is not harmful to human health in terms of Pb, Cd, and Hg.&nbsp;</p> Banu Kutlu Ekrem Mutlu Copyright (c) 2021 banu kutlu, Ekrem Mutlu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 44 26 31 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/12231 Land suitability analysis for surface irrigation in Humbo woreda, wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12727 <p>This study was initiated with the objective of analyzing land suitability for surface irrigation in Humbo woreda, Southern Ethiopia. For the suitability analysis of surface irrigation, soil type, slope, land cover, and distance from water supply were considered. The suitability factors data such as soil data was obtained from Ethio-soil, slope was derived from DEM-20 meter resolution, land use/cover was classified from satellite image of 2019 (Landsat 7 ETM+), and distance from the River was obtained from Ethio-River map. For each of the criteria suitability map was developed. Slope was classified as 0-2%, 2-5%, 5-8% and 8-15% as highly suitable, moderately, suitable, marginally suitable and not suitable respectively. LULC was classified by unsupervised classification. For the weighted over lay analysis as the most limiting factor slope was given (40%), land use and River proximity given equal weights (30%). The weighted overlay analysis gave irrigable area of 1.22% highly, 50.87% moderately, 45.77% marginally suitable for surface irrigation but 2.13% is not suitable. Thus, in Humbo woreda small area of the land is highly suitable however; more than half of the area is moderately suitable for surface irrigation. Thus, farmers and the government should invest in those suitable areas for surface irrigation. </p> Tadele Tesfaye Labiso Zewde Sufara Yagaso Copyright (c) 2021 Tadele Labiso, Zewdu Sufare Yagaso http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2021-05-16 2021-05-16 44 32 43 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/12727