EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality https://eqa.unibo.it/ <p><strong>EQA – ISSN 2281-4485</strong> is an international, multidisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal that encourages high-quality submissions of original research or brief reviews and analyses dealing with the aspects concerning soil, water and air quality and the sustainable use of these environmental resources.</p> Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna en-US EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality 2039-9898 <p>Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p> <p>Articles published since 2020 are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>:</p> <div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://licensebuttons.net/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div> <p> </p> <p>Previous articles are licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a>:</p> <div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://licensebuttons.net/l/by-nc/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div> The heavy metal biomonitoring study using lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. in Ankara province (Turkey) https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/15828 <p>For the purpose of biomonitoring air pollution level in Ankara (capital of Turkey) in terms of heavy metals, &nbsp;<em>Xanthoria parietina</em> (L.) Th. Fr. lichen samples were collected at 30 stations on different tree species, 29 of which are located in city center and 1 outside the city as a control station, between November 2020 and April 2021. After drying and cleaning dust and bark materials from the lichen thallus, the analysis of heavy metals&nbsp; (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb) was performed using ICP-MS and the amaount of chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b was measured with UV-Spectrophotometer.</p> <p>When mean of the heavy metal measurement results was compared with &nbsp;lichen reference values of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the ranking was as follows: Cr˃Fe˃Al˃Co˃V˃Cu˃As˃Ni˃Zn˃Pb˃Cd˃Mn. As expected, the station in Çamlıdere district, which was selected as a control station 98 km from the city center of Ankara, has lower heavy metals concentration compared to the other stations. According to the results of heavy metals concentration from other stations, the main sources of air pollution in Ankara are motor vehicles, fossil fuels, and industrial activities, respectively.</p> Volkan Işik Atila Yildiz Copyright (c) 2022 Volkan Işik, Atila Yildiz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 52 1 10 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/15828 Anthropogenic threats to wetland resources and its implication on carbon sequestration in Southwestern Ethiopia https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/15836 <p>Even though&nbsp;wetlands have been valued for their numerous ecosystem services and hydrological, ecological and habitat functions, its services have been&nbsp;threatened by its sudden losses. Nevertheless, the losses along its driving factors and the effects brought due to the loss have not been scientifically investigated. The study is geared to scrutinize anthropogenic threats to wetland and its implication on carbon sequestration in southwestern Ethiopia. A combination of geospatial and socioeconomic data were utilized to attain the intended objectives. A total of 384 households were selected using simple random sampling technique from sample kebeles to assess the drivers of wetland degradation. Besides, to address the experimental work, the wetland was stratified, and soil samples were taken from three classes of wetlands viz., permanent wetlands (intact wetlands), semi disturbed wetlands and wetlands converted to agricultural land. From the total category of wetlands, 24 composite soil samples in five replications at a depth of 0-20 cm were collected. The result of Landsat imageries revealed that Wichi wetland area has been shrinking. It was 17.4% of the area in 2001, while it declined into 3.1% in 2021. There is a significant difference (p &lt; 0.05) in soil Organic Content in between different classes of wetlands. The organic carbon content of soils converted to agricultural land is very low. In intact/undisturbed wetlands, there is better carbon content than other states of wetlands. This triggers the wetlands to lack their pristine nature. To reverse these problems, integrated problem-solving approach through collaboration of stakeholders from policy level down to grassroots community is found to be essential for sustainable wetland management in the area.</p> Alemayehu Abera Tekalign Assefa Zelalem Adugna Copyright (c) 2022 Alemayehu Abera, Tekalign Assefa, Zelalem Adugna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 52 11 19 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/15836 QSAR model for pka prediction of phenols https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/15686 <p>Descriptors (topological, mathematical and quantum) were used to generate quantitative construction property connections (QSPR) for the pKa of 80 phenols. The informational index was divided into 56 preparation and 24 test sets, and models were built using the preparation set's incomplete least squares (PLS) relapse. The consistency and predictive power of the best acquired QSAR models were achieved through internal approval, Y randomization, and external approval, and their pertinence area was confirmed by the influence technique. The benefits of the various direct relapse investigations' measurable boundaries. Standard deviation (S), standard deviation error of prediction (SDEP, External validation coefficient test), determination coefficient R², cross-validated R² (Q²) (SDEPext). The cross-validated R² (test Q²ext) values (95.68%, 95.22%, 0.304, 0.312, 0.292, and 96.24%, respectively) attest to the model's good fit.</p> Hakim Hamada Copyright (c) 2022 Hakim Hamada https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 52 20 28 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/15686 Practice and challenges of implementing vital event registration: the case of selected Woreda of Wolaita zone, Ethiopia https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/15771 <p>A vital events registration system is comprehensive, continuous, compulsory and the main source of vital statistics. This study aimed at investigating the practices and challenges of implementing vital events registration system in the selected Woredas of Wolayta zone, Ethiopia. The study employed mixed research method and descriptive research design on the practices and challenges of VRS among communities and government of the nation. Both primary and secondary sources of data would be used. To make the sample area manageable and representative, four Woreda were included through purposive sampling method. The sample size of the respondents for each site would be determined by non-probability and proportional sampling technique and in each site. Quantitative data was processed, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 and Binary Logistic Regression analysis would be used to fit a model and to check independent effect of selected exposure variables by using Adjusted Odds Ratio (Forward Stepwise Procedure) at 95% Confidence Interval. Lack of awareness on presence of birth registration is contributing factor for the low rate of birth registration practices. The study also confirms high prevalence of forgery cases in their working and resident area. Knowledge and attitude of respondents were eligible variables having power to affect the practice and trends of vital event registration system.Community awareness activities at all level through effective utilization of the existing community structures for sensitization of the communities, local media, and organized forums and via strong collaboration with all stakeholders should be accelerated.</p> Tadele Labiso Copyright (c) 2022 Tadele Labiso https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 52 29 38 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/15771 Evaluating the ecological capability of urban, rural and industrial development and estimating the current settlement of these areas using GIS in Larestan County, Iran https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/15660 <p>The importance of using rational and systematic methods in the management and optimal use of resources, especially natural resources, is clear to everyone. Improper development of residential and industrial areas leads to the destruction of agricultural lands and natural resources and expansion towards vulnerable areas, such as flood basins and inappropriate slopes, which in fact causes the ecological balance and stability of the land to be disrupted. The necessity of evaluating the ecological capability of urban, rural and industrial development is to objectify the capability of the expected land. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the ecological capability of Larestan County for urban, rural and industrial development. In this regard, the county of Larestan was evaluated using information layers and summarizing them using GIS technology. The evaluation results were presented in two relatively suitable (2) and unsuitable (3) classes. In addition, in this research, the percentage of suitability classes in the estimation of the current establishment of urban, rural and industrial uses was done by superimposing urban polygonal layers, points of villages and industrial areas of the county on the ecological suitability map, and the status of these areas was determined. According to the obtained results, most of the urban, rural and industrial areas are in the third or unsuitable class. In the survey conducted in the rural areas of Larestan county, a large number of villages (83.33%) are placed in the third or unsuitable class, which are scattered throughout the county. 57.3% of the area of urban areas are placed in the 3rd or unsuitable class. The industries of Larestan county are mostly placed in the third or unsuitable class (76.92%), this actually shows that the establishment of industries in Larestan county has not been paid attention to the ecological capability and this can lead to environmental damage. This improper establishment shows that both the industries themselves may be harmed and the industries can cause serious harm to the environment.</p> Mohammad Reza Khanbazi Nima Masoudi Masoud Masoudi Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammad Reza Khanbazi, Nima Masoudi, Masoud Masoudi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 52 39 46 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/15660