EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality https://eqa.unibo.it/ <p><strong>EQA – ISSN 2281-4485</strong> is an international, multidisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal that encourages high-quality submissions of original research or brief reviews and analyses dealing with the aspects concerning soil, water and air quality and the sustainable use of these environmental resources.</p> Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna en-US EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality 2039-9898 <p>Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a> (<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> Toxicity of natural radioactivity in water samples from a gold mine in Gauteng Province, South Africa https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/10995 <p>A radiological toxicity assessment of natural radioactivity in water samples from a gold mine in the Gauteng Province of South Africa was evaluated. In this study, 29 water samples were collected from the mine and 5 were collected from a control area. A broad energy germanium detector was used to measure the activity concentrations of Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40. Their activity concentrations were then used to calculate radiological hazard parameters in water for the area. The average value of the Radium Equivalent Activity (Ra<sub>eq</sub>) in water samples from the mining area and from the control area was found to be lower than the allowable limit of 370 Bq.L<sup>-1</sup>. The Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (AEDE) was found to be equal to 1.29×10<sup>-3</sup><strong> </strong>mSv.y<sup>-1</sup>, a value below worldwide average of 2.4 mSv.y<sup>-1 </sup>for natural radiation. The external hazard (H<sub>ex</sub>) and internal hazard (H<sub>in</sub>) index for water samples from the mining area were less than unity, making water samples safe to the population in the area.</p> Caspah Kamunda Copyright (c) 2020 Caspah Kamunda 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 41 1 8 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/10995 PGPR: present role, mechanism of action and future prospects along bottlenecks in commercialization https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/11103 <p>Throughout the plant developmental phases, there exist a strong relationship among soil, plant and rhizosphere microorganisms. The development of strong relationship links with the release of root exudates from plants. Diverse community of soil microorganisms depends on these exudations, establishing a strong interaction from growth promotion to parasitism. PGPR may compete for nutrients against pathogens, produces systematic resistance and antibiotics. They may promote plant growth through phytohormones and solubilizing minerals that affects the plant growth. The biological control of plant diseases through microbial-inoculants have enough potential for a large market share throughout the world, with annual growth-rate of almost 15-20%. The application of microbial based products is an eco-friendly approach and are the most suitable option for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers. The problem with microbial approach comes under field conditions where these microbes have to compete with various biotic and abiotic stresses. Marketing and commercialization are other important factors. However, success of marketing and commercialization is heavily dependent on advancement and improvements in interdisciplinary research, formulation methods, large-scale production, awareness and education of farming community. There is dire need to introduce an integrated approach of microbial based inoculation along with chemical one.</p> Zain Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2020 Zain Mushtaq 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 41 9 15 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/11103 KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS OF NITRATE ADSORPTION BY BIOCHAR https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/10481 <p>High concentration of nitrate in surface and ground water is a universal water pollution challenge for several. Four biochar samples were produced and subjected to batch sorption experiment. Data obtained were fitted into the linear forms of four adsorption isotherm and kinetics models. Least square regression analysis was used to test the best fitting isotherm and kinetic model using the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>). Results revealed that only maize cob biochar (MCB) and poultry litter biochar (PLB) had the ability to adsorb nitrate with maximum quantities of adsorbed nitrate (73.915 and 133.887 mgg<sup>-1</sup>). Similarly, adsorption kinetics indicated better fitting of the adsorption data onto the linear form of the pseudo second order kinetics (PSOK) model. Lower R<sup>2 </sup>values recorded by the intra particle diffusion and Elovich adsorption kinetic models suggest that the adsorption process was physical and intra- particle diffusion was not the rate controlling step. Similarly, 99% change in nitrate adsorption was accounted by the combined influence of biochar electrical conductivity (EC), zero point of charge (ZPC) and pH. Hence, modification of biochar EC, ZPC and pH are necessary for using biochar to successfully remove nitrate from polluted environments.</p> Nafiu Abdu Ado Adamu Yusuf Bello Mukhtar Rejoice Ibrahim Solomon Copyright (c) 2020 Nafiu Abdu, Ado Adamu Yusuf, Bello Mukhtar, REJOICE IBRAHIM SOLOMON 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 41 17 32 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/10481 ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY OF SMALL SCALE IRRIGATION SCHEME IN KWADON, YAMALTU-DEBA LGA OF GOMBE STATE https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/11166 <div><p><em>This study assess the physio-chemical composition of different water sources available at Kwadon small-scale irrigation site and evaluate their suitability for irrigation purpose. Surface and groundwater samples were collected from stream and boreholes using 1.5 liters sterilized bottles and then analyzed for important physio-chemical quality parameters include pH, EC<sub>w</sub>, TDS, </em><em>Ca<sup>++</sup><sub>, </sub>Mg<sup>++</sup><sub>, </sub>Na<sup>+</sup><sub>, </sub>HCO<sup>-</sup><sub>3, </sub>CI<sup>-</sup><sub>, </sub>SO<sup>-</sup><sub>4, </sub>NO<sub>3</sub><sup> –</sup><sub> , </sub>K<sup>+</sup><sub>, </sub>SAR and SSP following standard procedures. The quality rating for each parameters of water sources were rated for irrigation suitability following FAO standard guidelines. A very high positive correlation was established in the concentration level of water parameters sources from boreholes and stream. The findings of the study revealed that all the water sources were of good quality and found suitable for irrigation as must of the measured parameters were within the recommended FAO threshold level for irrigation. Thus, opportunities for scaling small-scale irrigation exist in the site. However, emphasize the need for proper application of the water and avoid activities such as washing of vehicles along the stream that could affect the quality of water. </em><strong></strong></p></div> Sule Samuel Abashiya Michael Musa Iliya Copyright (c) 2020 Samuel Sule, Michael Abashiya, Iliya Musa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 2020-10-29 2020-10-29 41 33 39 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/11166 Heavy metal contamination in surface sediments of major tanks in Anuradhapura district; A CKDu endemic district in Sri Lanka https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/11001 <p><em>Farming occupants are the major victims of Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in North Central region, Sri Lanka. Tanks are the main source of water for farming and they act as sinks for agricultural run-offs. Environmental toxicants are adsorbed by bottom sediments and can be released into the adjacent water column due to environmental changes as those are not permanently bound. Therefore, this study attempts to determine the contamination situation of the selected toxic metals in sediments of the tanks in a CKDu prevalence distrct (Anuradhapura) in Sri Lanka and prediction of the risk. Sixteen tanks were selected and sediment samples were randomly collected from each tank from bank to center. Digested sediment samples were analyzed for heavy metals using Inductive Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry and Calcium and Magnesium contents were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. According to the statistics, average values of some toxic metals such as As Pb, and Cr in sediments were higher than severe effect levels (SEL) while most of the mean values of Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Cu were beyond the Lowest effect levels (LEL). Apart from that, Geo Accumulation Indexes (I<sub>geo</sub>) Indicate that almost all tanks in Anuradhapura district have moderately polluted with above mentioned pollutants. Hence, findings reveal about a risk generated on aquatic lives in the tanks as well as humans via food chain contamination with hazardous metals. </em></p> Ruwan T. Perera Nalika Dayananda Shermila Botheju Janitha Liyanage Asanga Ranasinghe R. H. Karunarathna G.W.G. P. Kumara Copyright (c) 2020 Ruwan T. Perera, Nalika Dayananda, Shermila Botheju, Janitha Liyanage, Asanga Ranasinghe, R. H. Karunarathna, G.W.G. P. Kumara 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 41 40 48 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/11001