EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality https://eqa.unibo.it/ <p><strong>EQA – ISSN 2281-4485</strong> is an international, multidisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal that encourages high-quality submissions of original research or brief reviews and analyses dealing with the aspects concerning soil, water and air quality and the sustainable use of these environmental resources.</p> en-US <p>Copyrights and publishing rights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License</a> (<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> eqa@unibo.it (Gloria Falsone) ojs@unibo.it (OJS support) Wed, 20 Oct 2021 16:02:04 +0200 OJS 3.2.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Current Trends in Lead Contamination in Zambian Towns: Save the Innocents https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12548 <p>Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal which was actively mined in Kabwe, in Zambia’s Central Province and to a lesser extent, on the Copperbelt. Though the lead-zinc mine in Kabwe closed almost three decades ago, the risks associated with chronic exposure to the toxic heavy metal have not been addressed and remain a source of grave concern. Kabwe still remains one of the most lead contaminated towns in the world. Studies have shown that lead levels in soil, water and sediment far exceed permissible limits set by the World Health Organization. Recent investigations on the children under the age of seven in the mining towns have revealed arming levels of lead in their blood. Similarly, high level of lead has also been recorded in livestock in the same towns. Lead affects all organs of the body, particularly the nervous system. This paper identifies the various sources of Pb contamination in Zambian towns and the effects of lead toxicity on human health. Currently there are no any mitigation measures in place to protect people and livestock from excessive exposure to lead in the mining towns. The paper proposes sustainable bioremediation measures that can be used to reduce lead contamination in Zambian mining towns.</p> Annette Lombe, John Pamba, George Kasali, Phenny Mwaanga, Rodrick S. Katete Copyright (c) 2021 Annette Lombe, John Pamba, George Kasali, Phenny Mwaanga, Rodrick S. Katete http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12548 Wed, 20 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Geo-spatial distribution of hydrological nephrotoxic characteristics in Kalawewa and Tissawewa reservoirs in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12298 <p>Reservoirs are one of the major water resources subjected to different forms of pollution due to anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals and water hardness are a particular concern due to their potential toxic effect and bio-accumulate ability. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to analyze the spatial distribution of selected heavy metals Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As)) and total water hardness in Kalawewa and Tissawewa reservoirs, Anuradhapura District in Sri Lanka. Cd, Pb, and As contents of water samples were analyzed using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS-Agilent-7800). Total water hardness values were analyzed based on Ca and Mg concentrations of water samples. Spatial distribution patterns of analyzed heavy metals and total water hardness values were interpolated using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Spatial autocorrelation tool in ArcMap 10.2.2 software. Overall, the mean heavy metal concentrations in two reservoirs complied with World Health Organization agricultural water standards. The mean total water hardness values of the two reservoirs reflect “very hard water”, and the distributions of analyzed heavy metals and water hardness were higher in the center. As long term exposure to nephrotoxic heavy metals adversely affects human health, taking all necessary changes before consumption can be recommended.</p> Shermila Botheju, Nalika Dayananda, Ruwan T. Perera, Janitha A. Liyanage Copyright (c) 2021 Shermila Botheju, Nalika Dayananda, Ruwan T. Perera, Janitha A. Liyanage http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12298 Wed, 20 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Soil fertility status of soils of Sudano-Sahelian and Humid Forest Zones of West Africa and some soil management strategies for smallholder farms https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12745 <p>Knowledge of soil properties and fertility status of farmers’ fields are basic information needed by Agricultural Extension Agents to guide farmers on wise and sustainable management of soil. The properties of some cultivated fields in the Sudano-Sahelian of Ghana and Humid Forest zones of Nigeria were studied. The aim was to quantify the soil properties and fertility status with a view to prescribing low input ecological technologies that would improve and sustain soil productivity. Core samples were taken from the depth of 0 – 40 cm in eleven and eight farmers’ fields in the Upper East Ghana and South East Nigeria, respectively. Soil properties determined using standard methods were; pH, TN, SOC, SOM, P, Exchangeable bases, EA, base saturation, PSD, WP, FC, bulk density, P and SHC. Both soils were sand in texture (&gt; 700 g kg<sup>-1</sup>). The WP and FC were either below or within the lower border of critical levels. This shows crops in all the fields are prone to incipient wilting under any short dry spell. The chemical properties of the Sahelian-Sahelian zone showed that pH averaged 6.54 (moderate acidic), SOC 16 g kg<sup>-1</sup> (low), TN 13 g kg<sup>-1</sup> (very high), P, 18 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> (moderate), K 0.23 C mol kg<sup>-1</sup>) (moderate), ECEC 8.18 C mol kg<sup>-1</sup>(medium fertility class). In the Humid Forest zones, pH was 4.38 (extremely acidic), SOC 7.41 g kg<sup>-1</sup> (very low), N 1.78 g kg<sup>-1</sup> (low), P 15.94 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> (moderate), K 1.94 C mol kg<sup>-1</sup> (very high) and ECEC 8.8 C mol kg<sup>-1</sup> (medium fertility class). The fertility class indicates that the soils will response to external inputs and wise land management practices. A mix of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), multipurpose tree species, contour cultivation, organic mulch, multiple crop mixture, under vetiver grass buffer strip is recommended.</p> Effiom Oku, Alexandre Martins Abdao dos Passos, Simone S. Quintino, Nkiruka Celestina Odoh, Titilayo Bolane Olowookere Copyright (c) 2021 Effiom Oku, Alexandre Martins Abdao dos Passos, Simone S. Quintino, Nkiruka Celestina Odoh, Titilayo Bolane Olowookere http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/12745 Wed, 20 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Assessment of heavy metal contamination within the sediments in some fresh water lakes of Udaipur https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/13351 <p>Heavy metal concentrations were assessed in sediment samples collected from three lakes of Udaipur, Rajasthan. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the lakes for season wise addition of pollution load. The assessment of heavy metals was done using Contamination factor (CF), Geo accumulation index (Igeo) and Pollution load index (PLI). In summer CF varied from 0.01 to 7.43 i.e low to very high but in winter season all three lakes represented high CF factor. Likewise Igeo index in the sediments for summer ranged between 0.41 to 14.48 mg/kg i.e uncontaminated to moderate to heavy to extreme levels in sediments of lakes and trends were of the order Mn&gt;Zn&gt;Pb&gt;Ni&gt;Cu&gt;Cd. In winter Igeo index ranged between 1.34 to 19.3 mg/kg which is uncontaminated to extreme contamination in bottom sediments and trends were of the order Mn&gt;Zn&gt;Pb&gt;Ni&gt;Cu&gt;Cd. Pollution load index in winter season represented high value i.e more than 1 in both Dudh Talai and Udai Sagar Lake. The proposed study suggested that heavy metal accumulation in sediments during winter was higher than summer season. This has a very significant relevance where the contaminated sediments have one of the most challenging pollution issues owning to the toxicity persistence and bioaccumulation issues of food web.</p> Dhanusha Karki, Anuya Verma Copyright (c) 2021 Dhanusha Karki, Anuya Verma http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 https://eqa.unibo.it/article/view/13351 Wed, 20 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200