Variations of Surface Ozone levels in Urban area of India: a focus on night-time residual concentrations


  • Rohit Sharma TERI School of Advanced Studies
  • Kamna Sachdeva TERI School of Advanced Studies, Delhi, India
  • Anu R Sharma TERI School of Advanced Studies, Delhi, India



Mann-Kendall test, ARIMA forecasting, Night-time surface ozone, Residual ozone


This study investigates the existing diurnal as well as night time surface ozone concentration trend over Delhi between 1990 and 2012. Secondary data obtained from the National Data Centre (NDC) of the India Meteorological Department (IMD) was analysed to assess the trend in the surface and night-time ozone concentration. This was further used to forecast the variation in the night-time ozone concentration over the city till 2025. A significantly increasing trend of the night-time ozone concentration was observed between 1990 and 2012 evidenced by a +0.158 value of the Mann Kendall test. Moreover, the forecasting of the variations conducted using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model revealed that the concentration of night-time ozone is expected to increase between the period of 2013 and 2025 if the current trend continues. This is the first study to conduct a trend analysis of night-time ozone concentration for a duration of three decades in the NCT of Delhi. Considering the negative impacts of elevated levels of ozone on the health status of individuals, agricultural productivity and air quality of the city, the present study highlights that it is imperative to take concentrated actions to curb the release of anthropogenic precursors of surface ozone.


Aggarwal P, Jain S (2016) Energy demand and CO2emissions from urban on-road transport in Delhi: current and future projections under various policy measures. J Clean Prod 128:48–61. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.12.012

Akritidis D, Pozzer A, Zanis P, et al (2016) On the role of tropopause folds in summertime tropospheric ozone over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 0:1–24. doi: 10.5194/acp-2016-547

Ali K, Inamdar SR, Beig G, et al (2012) Surface ozone scenario at Pune and Delhi during the decade of 1990s. J Earth Syst Sci 121:373–383. doi: 10.1007/s12040-012-0170-1

Aneja VP, Adams AA, Arya SP (2000a) An observational based analysis of ozone trends and production for urban areas in North Carolina. Chemosph - Glob Chang Sci 2:157–165. doi: 10.1016/S1465-9972(00)00007-6

Aneja VP, Arya SP, Li Y, et al (2000b) Climatology of diurnal trends and vertical distribution of ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer in urban North Carolina. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 50:54–64. doi: 10.1080/10473289.2000.10463984

Awang NR, Ramli NA, Yahaya AS, Elbayoumi M (2015a) High Nighttime Ground-Level Ozone Concentrations in Kemaman: NO and NO2 Concentrations Attributions. Aerosol Air Qual Res 15:1357–1366. doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2015.01.0031

Awang NR, Ramli NA, Yahaya AS, Elbayoumi M (2015b) Multivariate methods to predict ground level ozone during daytime, nighttime, and critical conversion time in urban areas. Atmos Pollut Res 6:726–734. doi: 10.5094/APR.2015.081

Banta RM, Senff CJ, White AB, et al (1998) Daytime buildup and nighttime transport of urban ozone in the boundary layer during a stagnation episode. J Geophys Res 103:22519. doi: 10.1029/98JD01020

Bloomer BJ, Stehr JW, Piety CA, et al (2009) Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions. Geophys Res Lett 36:1–5. doi: 10.1029/2009GL037308

Brandvold DK, Martinez P, Hipsh R (1996) Field measurements of O3 and N2O produced from corona discharge. Atmos Environ 30:973–976. doi: doi:10.1016/1352-2310(95)00234-0

Cailleret M, Ferretti M, Gessler A, et al (2018) Ozone effects on European forest growth-Towards an integrative approach. J Ecol 1377–1389. doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12941

Chattopadhyay G, Chakraborthy P, Chattopadhyay S (2012) Mann-Kendall trend analysis of tropospheric ozone and its modeling using ARIMA. Theor Appl Climatol 110:321–328. doi: 10.1007/s00704-012-0617-y

Cooper OR, Parrish DD, Ziemke J, et al (2014) Global distribution and trends of tropospheric ozone: An observation-based review. Elem Sci Anthr 2:000029. doi: 10.12952/journal.elementa.000029

Crutzen PJ (1988) Tropospheric Ozone : An Overview. 3–32. doi: 10.1007/978-94-009-2913-5_1

Derwent RG, Manning AJ, Simmonds PG, et al (2018) Long-term trends in ozone in baseline and European regionally-polluted air at Mace Head, Ireland over a 30-year period. Atmos Environ 179:279–287. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.02.024

Díaz J, Ortiz C, Falcón I, et al (2018) Short-term effect of tropospheric ozone on daily mortality in Spain. Atmos Environ 187:107–116. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.05.059

Eliasson I, Thorsson S, Andersson-Sköld Y (2003) Summer nocturnal ozone maxima in Göteborg, Sweden. Atmos Environ 37:2615–2627. doi: 10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00205-X

Fleming ZL, Doherty RM, Schneidemesser E Von, et al (2018) Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report : Present-day ozone distribution and trends relevant to human health

Ghosh D, Lal S, Sarkar U (2013) High nocturnal ozone levels at a surface site in Kolkata, India: Trade-off between meteorology and specific nocturnal chemistry. Urban Clim 5:82–103. doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2013.07.002

Goyal P, Sidhartha (2003) Present scenario of air quality in Delhi: A case study of CNG implementation. Atmos Environ 37:5423–5431. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.09.005

Hayashida S, Kajino M, Deushi M, et al (2018) Seasonality of the lower tropospheric ozone over China observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Atmos Environ 184:244–253. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.04.014

Hayashida S, Liu X, Ono A, et al (2015) Observation of ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere over East Asia from a space-borne ultraviolet spectrometer. Atmos Chem Phys 15:9865–9881. doi: 10.5194/acp-15-9865-2015

Hu L, Jacob DJ, Liu X, et al (2017) Global budget of tropospheric ozone: Evaluating recent model advances with satellite (OMI), aircraft (IAGOS), and ozonesonde observations. Atmos Environ 167:323–334. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.08.036

IPCC (2007) Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Jenkin ME, Clemitshaw KC (2000) Ozone and other secondary photochemical pollutants: chemical processes governing their formation in the planetary boundary layer. Atmos Environ 34:2499–2527. doi: 10.1016/S1474-8177(02)80014-6

Karthik L B, Sujith B, Rizwan A S, Sehgal M (2017) Characteristics of the Ozone Pollution and its Health Effects in India. Int J Med Public Heal 7:56–60. doi: 10.5530/ijmedph.2017.1.10

Kuang S, Newchurch MJ, Burris J, et al (2011) Nocturnal ozone enhancement in the lower troposphere observed by lidar. Atmos Environ 45:6078–6084. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.07.038

Kulkarni PS, Bortoli D, Silva AM (2013) Nocturnal surface ozone enhancement and trend over urban and suburban sites in Portugal. Atmos Environ 71:251–259. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.01.051

Kumar A, Singh D, Singh BP, et al (2015) Spatial and temporal variability of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides in urban and rural ambient air of Delhi-NCR, India. Air Qual Atmos Heal 8:391–399. doi: 10.1007/s11869-014-0309-0

Kumar K, Yadav a K, Singh MP, et al (2004) Forecasting daily maximum surface ozone concentrations in Brunei Darussalam--an ARIMA modeling approach. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 54:809–14. doi: 10.1080/10473289.2004.10470949

Lefohn AS, Malley CS, Smith L, et al (2018) Tropospheric ozone assessment report: Global ozone metrics for climate change, human health, and crop/ecosystem research. Elem Sci Anth 6:28. doi: 10.1525/elementa.279

Li J, Yang W, Wang Z, et al (2016) Modeling study of surface ozone source-receptor relationships in East Asia. Atmos Res 167:77–88. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.07.010

Mavrakis A, Flocas HA, Mavromatidis E, et al (2010) A case of nighttime high ozone concentration over the greater Athens area. Meteorol Zeitschrift 19:35–45. doi: 10.1127/0941-2948/2010/0428

McBean E, Motiee H (2008) Assessment of impact of climate change on water resources: a long term analysis of the Great Lakes of North America. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 12:239–255. doi: 10.5194/hess-12-239-2008

Mohan D, Tsimhoni O, Sivak M, Flannagan MJ (2009) Road Safety in India: Challenges and Opportunities

Monks PS, Archibald AT, Colette A, et al (2015) Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to short-lived climate forcer. Atmos Chem Phys 15:8889–8973. doi: 10.5194/acp-15-8889-2015

Narayanan P, Basistha A, Sarkar S, Kamna S (2013) Trend analysis and ARIMA modelling of pre-monsoon rainfall data for western India. Comptes Rendus - Geosci 345:22–27. doi: 10.1016/j.crte.2012.12.001

Neu U, Künzle T, Wanner H (1994) On the relation between ozone storage in the residual layer and daily variation in near-surface ozone concentration-A case study. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 69:221–247. doi: 10.1007/BF00708857

Norazian MN, Mustafa AM, Bakri A, et al (2007) Estimating Missing Data Using Interpolation Technique : Effects on Fitting Distribution. 3rd IMT-GT 2007 Reg Conf Math Stat Appl 0–5

Peshin SK, Sharma A, Sharma SK, et al (2017) Spatio-temporal variation of air pollutants and the impact of anthropogenic effects on the photochemical buildup of ozone across Delhi-NCR. Sustain Cities Soc 35:740–751. doi: 10.1016/j.scs.2017.09.024

Reddy BSK (2012) Analysis of Diurnal and Seasonal Behavior of Surface Ozone and Its Precursors (NOx) at a Semi-Arid Rural Site in Southern India. Aerosol Air Qual Res 1081–1094. doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2012.03.0055

Robeson SM, Steyn DG (1990) Evaluation and comparison of statistical forecast models for daily maximum ozone concentrations. Atmos Environ Part B, Urban Atmos 24:303–312. doi: 10.1016/0957-1272(90)90036-T

Saxena P, Ghosh C (2010) Status of Tropospheric Ozone and other primary air pollutants after the implementation of CNG in Delhi. Asian J Chem 22:7498–7506

Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN (2012) Atmospheric From Air Pollution to Climate Change Second Edition

Sharma A, Sharma SK, Pathak U, et al (2016a) Study on surface ozone and its precursors at an urban site of Delhi , India. Indian J Radio Sp Phys 45:95–100

Sharma S, Khare M (2017) Simulating ozone concentrations using precursor emission inventories in Delhi – National Capital Region of India. Atmos Environ 151:117–132. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.12.009

Sharma S, Sharma P, Khare M, Kwatra S (2016b) Statistical behavior of ozone in urban environment. Sustain Environ Res 26:142–148. doi: 10.1016/j.serj.2016.04.006

Sharma SK, Rohtash, Mandal TK, et al (2016c) Measurement of Ambient NH3, NO and NO2 at an Urban Area of Kolkata, India. Mapan - J Metrol Soc India 31:75–80. doi: 10.1007/s12647-015-0147-z

Shukla K, Srivastava PK, Banerjee T, Aneja VP (2016) Trend and variability of atmospheric ozone over middle Indo-Gangetic Plain: impacts of seasonality and precursor gases. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-7738-2

Sicard P, Serra R, Rossello P (2016) Spatiotemporal trends in ground-level ozone concentrations and metrics in France over the time period 1999-2012. Environ Res 149:122–144. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.05.014

Singh S, Agrawal SB, Agrawal M (2009) Differential protection of ethylenediurea (EDU) against ambient ozone for five cultivars of tropical wheat. Environ Pollut 157:2359–2367. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.03.029

Sousa SI V, Alvim-Ferraz MCM, Martins FG (2011) Identification and origin of nocturnal ozone maxima at urban and rural areas of Northern Portugal - Influence of horizontal transport. Atmos Environ 45:942–956. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.11.008

Supriya T, Madhoolika A (2018) Ozone Concentrations in Troposphere : Historical and Current Perspectives. In: Tropospheric Ozone and its Impacts on Crop Plants A Threat to Future Global Food Security. Springer, Cham, pp 2–21

Tiwari S, Dahiya A, Kumar N (2015) Investigation into relationships among NO, NO2, NOx, O3, and CO at an urban background site in Delhi, India. Atmos Res 157:119–126. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.01.008

Yadav R, Sahu LK, Beig G, Jaaffrey SNA (2016) Role of long-range transport and local meteorology in seasonal variation of surface ozone and its precursors at an urban site in India. Atmos Res 176–177:96–107. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.02.018

Yue S, Hashino M (2003) Long-term trends of annual and monthly precipitation in Japan. Am Water Resouces Assoc 39:587–596. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2003.tb03677.x

Yurekli K, Simsek H, Cemek B, Karaman S (2007) Simulating climatic variables by using stochastic approach. Build Environ 42:3493–3499. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.10.046




How to Cite

Sharma, R., Sachdeva, K., & Sharma, A. R. (2021). Variations of Surface Ozone levels in Urban area of India: a focus on night-time residual concentrations. EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality, 42, 22-35.