• Sule Samuel Gombe State University
  • Abashiya Michael Gombe State University
  • Musa Iliya Gombe State University



Irrigation, Water Quality, Standard, Kwadon


This study assess the physio-chemical composition of different water sources available at Kwadon small-scale irrigation site and evaluate their suitability for irrigation purpose. Surface and groundwater samples were collected from stream and boreholes using 1.5 liters sterilized bottles and then analyzed for important physio-chemical quality parameters include pH, ECw, TDS, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, HCO-3, CI-, SO-4, NO3 , K+, SAR and SSP following standard procedures. The quality rating for each parameters of water sources were rated for irrigation suitability following FAO standard guidelines. A very high positive correlation was established in the concentration level of water parameters sources from boreholes and stream. The findings of the study revealed that all the water sources were of good quality and found suitable for irrigation as must of the measured parameters were within the recommended FAO threshold level for irrigation. Thus, opportunities for scaling small-scale irrigation exist in the site. However, emphasize the need for proper application of the water and avoid activities such as washing of vehicles along the stream that could affect the quality of water.


Abdallah, C.W. (1990) Agriculture and Groundwater quality: Emarging issues and policies. Pp. 1-16 in Proceedings of the Philadelphia society for promotion of Agriculture Philadelphia, Pa.:The Society.

Adekunle OA, Oladipo FO, Busari IZ (2015). Factors Affecting Farmers’ Participation in Irrigation Schemes of the Lower Niger River Basin and Rural Development Authority, Kwara State, Nigeria. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension 43(2):42-51.

Bashir Adelodun and Kyung-Sook Choi (2018). A review of the evaluation of irrigation practice in Nigeria: Past, present and future prospects. African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 13(40), pp. 2087-2097,

Baminda A. B. and D.D.Dabi (2011): An Analysis of Environmental Effects of Gypsom Mining in Funakaye - Nafada Area, Gombe State. Proceeding of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Association of Nigerian Geographers (ANG) held at Lagos State University.

Bauder, 1.A., R. M. Waskom and J. 0. Davis (2007).Irrigation water quality criteria. Colorado State University, Us Department of Agriculture. Research Report,7/03. . 56

Bryan Swistock (2016) Interpreting Irrigation Water Tests, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, articles updated: may 31, 2016.

FAO (2005). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 21st ed, American Public Health Association, Washington DC,USA.

FAO (2013). Water quality for agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization, Irrigation and Drainage Papers.

Janusz R. Rydzewski (1990). Irrigation: a viable development strategy? The geographical Journal Vol. 156, No.2, pp 175 – 180

Joshi, D. M., Kumar, A. and Agrawal, N. (2009) Assessment of the irrigation water quality of river Ganga in Haridwar District, Rasayan Journal of Chemistry 2,285 – 292.

Kahlown, M.A. and A.D. Kahn (2002). Irrigation Water Quality Manual. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

Kahlown, M.A, M.A. Tahir, H. Rashid and K.P. Bhatti (2006). Water Quality Status. Fourth Technical Report 2004-06, PCRWR, Islamabad.

Lenntech B.V, (2020). Irrigation water quality, parameters of reuse water with agronomic significance

NPC (2006) Census Results. National population commission, Gombe office.

Nwa EU (2003). History of Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control in Nigeria from Pre-Colonial Time to 1999. Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Mbaya, L. A.(2016).Climate Change Induced Tree Mortality in the Savanna Woodland and its Implication on Rural Livelihoods in Gombe State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Tropical Geography 7(1)pp952-968

Mugagga F, Nabaasa BB (2016). The Centrality of water resources to the Realization of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). A Review of Potentials and Constraints on the African Continent. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 4:215-223.

Sule, S. Abashiya, M. and Musa, I (2019). Groundwater quality and its potential in Gombe State. In: Mbaya, L.A., Wanah. B. B., Dan, Y. and Ahmed, B. Y.(eds). Gombe: People, Environment and Development. Pp92-103.Nonimod J. Ventures Jimeta-Yola, Nigeria. ISBN:978-978-976-413-6.

Sule. S, I. Musa and B. Maina (2017). Physical properties and distribution of irrigation soils along wango stream, Kwadon Y/Deba LGA, Gombe State. Preceeding of the 58th ANG Annual Conference Nasarawa State University, Keffi.

Tahir, M.A., R. Rasheed, M. Asghar and I. Anwar (2003). Instruction manual for water quality analysis. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources. Islamabad, Pakistan, 6-7th March, Islamabad, Pakistan. Pub. No. 123, pp. 3-11.

Todd, D. K. (1959) Groundwater Hydrology. Wiley International, Tokyo, Japan, 352p

USDA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils. Agriculture Handbook 60 United State Salinity Laboratory, Washington, 160p

Wanah B. B. and L. A. Mbaya (2012) Adaptation to Climate Change: Vulnerability Assessment for Gombe State. Proceeding of the 52nd Annual Conference of the Association of Nigerian Geographers, UDUS, ISBN: 978-978-932-167-14.

Warrence, N. J., Bauder, J. and Pearson, K. E. (2003) Basic of Salinity and Sodicity effects on soil physical properties. Department of Land Resources and Environmental Science, Montana, USA.




How to Cite

Samuel, S., Michael, A., & Iliya, M. (2021). ANALYSIS OF WATER QUALITY OF SMALL SCALE IRRIGATION SCHEME IN KWADON, YAMALTU-DEBA LGA OF GOMBE STATE. EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality, 41, 33–39.