Measurement of radon and heavy metal concentrations in groundwater around Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Radon and heavy metal in water


  • Mrs Jidele Pauline Federal University of Agriculture P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta
  • Mr Dosunmu Oluwaseun Federal University of Agriculture P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta
  • Mr Ajayi Kayode University of Lagos. Akoka Lagos
  • Dr Ademola Augustine Kolapo Bells University of Technology, Ota



radon, water, heavy metal, industrial area, residential area


This study investigated the concentrations of radon and some heavy metals in drinking water in Ota; an industrial hub of south-western Nigeria. RAD-7; an active electronic device produced by the Durridge Company in the USA was used for measurement of radon concentration and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer for heavy metals. Twenty (20) water samples were collected for this study. Radon concentration in the samples varied from 2.3 to 34.5 Bq L-1, with a mean of 7.7 Bq L-1. The committed annual effective doses due to the ingestion of radon varied from 0.017 to 0.252 mSv y-1 with a mean of 0.056 mSv y-1. It was observed that 15% of the samples have radon concentration above the 11.1 BqL-1; the action level recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The mean concentration of heavy metals in the water samples were 0.02, 0.014, 0.048, 0.010 and 0.003 mgL-1for Cd, Pb, Se, Cr and As, respectively. The concentrations of Pb, Se and As were higher than the WHO permissible limit. This study revealed high concentration of some heavy metals in water in the study areas which may have some delirious effects on the consumers.


Ahmad N., Jaafar M.S., Alsaffar M.S. (2015). Study of radon concentration and toxic elements in drinking and irrigated water and its implications in Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 8: 294-299. doi: 10.1016/j.jrras.2015.04.003

Darby S., Hill D., Auvinen A., Barros-Dios J., Baysson H., Bochicchio F. (2005). Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer: collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. Br Med J. 330:223. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38308.477650.63

El-Taher A. (2012). Measurement of Radon Concentrations and their Annual Effective Dose Exposure in Groundwater from Passion area, Saudi. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 5: 475-481 DOI: 10.3923/jest.2012.475.481

Hamzeh, A, Samar, M, Shazar, I, Nidal, D, Ghassan, S (2012). Exposure assessment of radon in the drinking water supplies: a descriptive study in Palestine. BMC Research Notes, 5:29. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1299/1/012098

IARC (1998). CD-Rom, Globocan1; Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide in 1990. Lyon, IARC Press.

Ina’cio M., Soare S., Almmeida P. (2017). Radon concentration assessment in water sources of public drinking of Covilhas Country, Portugal. J. Radia. Res. and Applied Science, 10(2): 135-139. doi:10.1016/j.jrras.2017.02.002

Oni O.M., Oladapo O.O., Amuda D.B., Oni E.A., Olive-Adelodun A.O., Adewale K.Y., Fasina M.O. (2014). Radon concentration in groundwater of areas of high background radiation level in southwestern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Physics, 25(1): 64-67.

Oni O.M., Amoo P.A., Aremu A.A. (2019). Simulation of absorbed dose to human organs and tissues associated with radon in groundwater use in southwestern Nigeria. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 155: 44-47. doi:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2018.08.029

Salako, R.A (1999). Ota: The Biography of the foremost Awori Town. Penink & Co. p. 14.

Somlai K., Tokonami S., Ishikawa T., Venesura P., Gaspar M., Jobbagy V., Somlai J., Kovacs T. (2007). 222Rn concentration of water in the Balaton highland and in the southern part of Hungary and the assessment of the resulting dose. Radiation Measurement, 42: 491-495. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1299/1/012098

Todorović, J. Nikolov, S. Forkapić, I. Bikit, D. Mrdja, M. Krmar, M. Vesković. (2012). Public

exposure to radon in drinking water in Serbia. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 70: 543- 549. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.11.045

UNSCEAR (1993). Report sources and effects of ionizing radiation. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation Annex A: Exposures from Natural Sources of Radiation.

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1999). Risk assessment of radon in drinking water. Committee on risk assessment of exposure to radon in drinking water. Board on Radiation Effects Research, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council Staff. Washington D.C: National Academy Press.

UNSCEAR, 2000. Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly. ANNEX B exposures from natural radiation sources.

World Health Organization (2009). Handbook on Indoor Radon: A Public Health Perspective. Environmental Protection Agency Press Release, 1:4.




How to Cite

Jidele, P., Dosunmu, O., Ajayi, K., & Ademola, A. (2021). Measurement of radon and heavy metal concentrations in groundwater around Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.: Radon and heavy metal in water. EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality, 42, 42-49.