Geo-spatial distribution of hydrological nephrotoxic characteristics in Kalawewa and Tissawewa reservoirs in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka


  • Shermila Botheju Department of Chemistry, University of Kelaniya
  • Nalika Dayananda Department of Chemistry, University of Kelaniya
  • Ruwan T. Perera Department of Chemistry, University of Kelaniya
  • Janitha A. Liyanage Department of Chemistry, University of Kelaniya



nephrotoxic heavy metals, reservoirs, spatial distribution , water hardness


Reservoirs are one of the major water resources subjected to different forms of pollution due to anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals and water hardness are a particular concern due to their potential toxic effect and bio-accumulate ability. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to analyze the spatial distribution of selected heavy metals Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As)) and total water hardness in Kalawewa and Tissawewa reservoirs, Anuradhapura District in Sri Lanka. Cd, Pb, and As contents of water samples were analyzed using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS-Agilent-7800). Total water hardness values were analyzed based on Ca and Mg concentrations of water samples. Spatial distribution patterns of analyzed heavy metals and total water hardness values were interpolated using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Spatial autocorrelation tool in ArcMap 10.2.2 software. Overall, the mean heavy metal concentrations in two reservoirs complied with World Health Organization agricultural water standards.  The mean total water hardness values of the two reservoirs reflect “very hard water”, and the distributions of analyzed heavy metals and water hardness were higher in the center. As long term exposure to nephrotoxic heavy metals adversely affects human health, taking all necessary changes before consumption can be recommended.


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How to Cite

Botheju, S., Dayananda, N. ., Perera, R. T. ., & Liyanage, J. A. (2021). Geo-spatial distribution of hydrological nephrotoxic characteristics in Kalawewa and Tissawewa reservoirs in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality, 46, 13–24.