Comparison of Kinetics of Cr (III) Ions Removal from Wastewater Using Raw and Activated Montmorillonite Minerals




activated adsorbent, adsorption, Chrome removal, heavy metal removal


In this study, kinetics of the removal of Cr (III) from the waters by adsorption have been investigated using montmorillonite natural clay that was obtained from the vicinity of Narman, Erzurum in Turkey. Activation energy, thermodynamic values and adsorption kinetics were determined. In addition, the trials were repeated by subjecting to the same adsorbent activation process. The values ​​found for these two adsorbents were compared. As a result of the experiments, the parameters affecting the adsorption kinetics were examined. It was determined that the adsorption process could be best depicted by pseudo second order reaction kinetics. Using pseudo second order reaction rate constants, ΔH° = -25.791 kJ mol-1 and ΔS° = 106.19 joule mol-1 were calculated for raw adsorbent. For the activated adsorbent, ΔH° = -18,806 kJ mol-1 and ΔS° = 79.37 joule mol-1 were calculated. That ΔG° increases as temperature increases indicates; adsorption is more spontaneous at high temperatures. Negative ΔH° values show that the reaction is exothermic. The positive values of ΔS° indicate increased randomness at the adsorbent/solution interface during the adsorption of chrome.


AGARWAL S., TYAGI I., GUPTA V.K., GHASEMI N., SHAHIVAND M., GHASEMI M. (2016) Kinetics, equilibrium studies and thermodynamics of methylene blue adsorption on Ephedra strobilacea saw dust and modified using phosphoric acid and zinc chloride. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 218:208-218. doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2016.02.073.

BARLETT R., KIMBLE J. (1976) Behavior of chromium in soil: I Trivalent form. Journal of Environmental Quality, 5:383-386.

BAYRAM T., (2012). Treatment of Atatürk University Pilot Milk Factory Wastewater in Membrane Bioreactor, Erzurum: Atatürk University, Doctoral Thesis.

BRUNAUER S., EMMETT P.H., TELLER E. (1938) Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. Journal of the American chemical society, 60(2):309-319. doi:10.1021/ja01269a023.

BUENO B., TOREM M., MOLINA F., DE MESQUITA L., (2008) Biosorption of lead (II), chromium (III) and copper (II) by R. opacus: Equilibrium and kinetic studies. Minerals Engineering, 21(1):65-75.

CHEN W., PARETTE R., ZOU J., CANNON F.S., DEMPSEY B.A. (2007). Arsenic removal by iron-modified activated carbon. Water Research, 41(9):1851-1858.

ERDEM M., ALTUNDOĞAN H., TÜMEN F. (2004) Removal of hexavalent chromium by using heat-activated bauxite. Minerals Engineering, 17(9-10):1045-1052.

EZZATI R. (2020) Derivation of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and modified pseudo-first-order rate equations from Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal, 392:123705.

FREUNDLICH H.M.F. (1907) Über die adsorption in lösungen. Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie, 57(1):385-470. doi:10.1515/zpch-1907-5723.

GRIFFIN R., AU A. K., FROST R. (1977) Effect of pH on adsorption of chromium from landfill‐leachate by clay minerals. Journal of Environmental Science & Health Part A, 12(8):431-449.

GÜNAYDIN F, ÖZER A, ALTUNDOGAN H, ERDEM M, TÜMEN F. (1999) The removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions using zinc extraction residue. Environmental technology, 20(4):405-411.

HUANG C-P., WU M-H. (1975) Chromium removal by carbon adsorption. Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), 47:2437-2446.

İRDEMEZ Ş., TORUN F. E., DURMUŞ G. (2017) The Removal of Chromium (III) Ions From Solutions and Examination of Effecting Parameters by Using Montmorillonite Mineral Clays (in Turkish). Dokuz Eylul University-Faculty of Engineering Journal of Science and Engineering, 19(57), 701-711. DOI: 10.21205/deufmd.2017195763.

JAYCOCK, M.J., PARFITT, G.D. (1981) Chemistry of Interfaces. Ellis Horwood Ltd, Onichester

JIA, C-S., ZHANG, L-H., X PENG, X-L., LUO, J-X., ZHAO, Y-L., LIU, J-Y., GUO, J-J., TANG, L-D. (2019) Prediction of entropy and Gibbs free energy for nitrogen. Chemical Engineering Science, 202:70-74.

JIANG J., XU R., WANG Y., ZHAO A. (2008) The mechanism of chromate sorption by three variable charge soils. Chemosphere, 71(8):1469-1475.

KANEKO S., TSUKAMOTO K., IMOTO F. (1978) Removal of heavy-metals in wastewater by using complex oxides gels. 1. Adsorption characteristics of chromium (vi) on coprecipitated silica-titania gel. Nippon Kagaku Kaishi, (9):1298-1301.

KRISHNA B., MURTY D., PRAKASH B. J. (2001) Surfactant-modified clay as adsorbent for chromate. Applied Clay Science, 20(1-2):65-71.

LANGMUIR I. (1918) The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 40(9):1361-1403.

LIMA E. C., GOMES A. A., TRAN H. N. (2020) Comparison of the nonlinear and linear forms of the van't Hoff equation for calculation of adsorption thermodynamic parameters (∆ S° and∆ H°). Journal of Molecular Liquids, 311:113315.

MAJDAN M, MARYUK O, PIKUS S, OLSZEWSKA E, KWIATKOWSKI R, SKRZYPEK H. (2005) Equilibrium, FTIR, scanning electron microscopy and small wide angle X-ray scattering studies of chromates adsorption on modified bentonite. Journal of Molecular Structure, 740(1-3):203-211.

REGAZZONI A.E. (2020) Adsorption kinetics at solid/aqueous solution interfaces: On the boundaries of the pseudo-second order rate equation. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 585:124093.

TAŞTAN B. E., ERTUĞRUL S., DÖNMEZ G. (2010) Effective bioremoval of reactive dye and heavy metals by Aspergillus versicolor. Bioresource technology, 101(3):870-876.

TEMKIN M. (1940) Kinetics of ammonia synthesis on promoted iron catalysts. Acta Physiochim URSS, 12:327-356.

TOPRAK R., GIRGIN I. (2000) Removal of chromium from leather industry waste water by activated clinoptilolite. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 24(5):343-351.

WU C. (2007) Adsorption of reactive dye onto carbon nanotubes: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 144(1–2):93-100.




How to Cite

İrdemez, Şahset, Durmuş, G. ., Kul, S., Ekmekyapar Torun, F. ., & Bingül, Z. (2021). Comparison of Kinetics of Cr (III) Ions Removal from Wastewater Using Raw and Activated Montmorillonite Minerals. EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality, 45, 17–26.