Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment in Phosphate Mining and Processing Sites. Hahotoé and Kpémé in Togo


  • Milohum Mikesokpo Dzagli University of Lomé https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6021-3599
  • Yawovi Mignanou Amouzouvi Department of Physics, University of Lomé. Lomé. Togo
  • Kosi Sesime
  • Kossivi Bienvenu Rodrigue Afoudji




Heavy metal, pollution Index, phosphate mining, Togo


The industrial activities related to phosphate mining and treatment constitute a threat to the population and its environment at Hahotoé and Kpémé (Togo) and released uncontrolled concentrations of toxic heavy metals that polluting soils, vegetation and water. The assessment of the pollution level would be useful for remediation, safeguard and prediction of risk to the environment and public. This study aims to assess the pollution level related to heavy metals in the soils, water and leaves at the phosphate mining (Hahotoé) and treatment (Kpémé) sites using spectroscopic techniques. Pollution indices such as contam- ination factor, degree of contamination, potential ecological risk index, pollution load index and heavy metal pollution index were used to achieve this goal. The average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated in the soils, leaves and water samples from the studied areas using the ZEEnit 700 with acetylene-air flame atomic spectrometer. High average concentrations of heavy metals were found in the samples exceeding the WHO limits. Heavy metal pollution index was used to assess the wa- ter quality with respect to heavy metals and very high value was found of 1168.84 at Kpémé and 733.58 at Hahotoé exceeding the critical value of 100. The results show unacceptable water quality for drinking on these sites. This study must help to design measures to reduce the pollutants released in the areas. The concerned issue poses a public health threat, so stakeholders would act in controlling the pollution level.


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2022-02-17 — Updated on 2022-08-22


How to Cite

Dzagli, M. M., Amouzouvi, Y. M., Sesime, K., & Afoudji, K. B. R. (2022). Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment in Phosphate Mining and Processing Sites. Hahotoé and Kpémé in Togo. EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality, 47, 9–21. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2281-4485/13435