Models of water quality index for monitoring of available drinking bottled water consumed within Jalingo municipal
Keywords:Parameter, Modeling, Assess, Equation
This study was carried out to develop a model of water quality index to be used for quality control of available bottled water consumed within Jalingo municipal. Six (6) different products of available bottled drinking water samples were obtained from Jalingo main market. The parameters of this bottled water were analyzed in the Environmental Laboratory of Taraba State Water Supply and Sewage Corporation (TAWASCO) Headquarters, Jalingo. Results of the analysis showed that values of temperature of all the six bottled water samples have exceeded the permissible value, but has no health implication, while results for turbidity, pH, Dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity values were below the permissible limit. Results gotten from the analysis, through appropriate equations and the use of Minitab 19, were used to determine Water Quality Index (WQI) of the bottled water samples and it was observed that BW3 had a water quality status of excellent and BW2 and BW4 had good as the water quality status while BW1, BW2 and BW6 had water quality status as poor. The model equation has a reliability (R2) of 90.3% and error of 9.7%. The experimental values of the water quality index were compared with those from the model equation and the results showed there were very little errors ranging from 0.00 to 0.48; indicating that there was a significant agreement between the values of WQI obtained by experiments and the ones from model equation. Finally, it was concluded that, in terms of both water quality index/parameters, the various bottled water samples are safe and fit for consumption and the equation could be employed for quality control of the available bottled water consumed within the confined of this study.
AF-SHAHABY A.A. (2015). Bacteriological Evaluation of Tap Water and Bottled Mineral Water in Taif, Western Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 4 Number 12 (2015) pp. 600-615.
APHA (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st edition, Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
BAPPER U., YOUNIS A. (2016). Quality Assessment of Various Bottled-Water and tap Water in Erbil City –Kurdistan Region of Iraq. ZANCO Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, The official scientific journal of Salahaddin University-Erbil, ZJPAS, 28 (4); 66-75.
BOYACIOGLU H., GÜNDOGDU V. (2013). Efficiency of water quality index approach as an evaluation tool. Ecol Chem Eng S., 20(2): 247-255.
BOZORG-HADDAD O., SOLEIMANI S., LOÁICIGA, H.A. (2017). Modeling Water-Quality Parameters Using Genetic Algorithm–Least Squares Support Vector Regression and Genetic Programming. Journal of Environmental Engineering. 143 (7): 04017021. doi:10.1061/(ASCE) EE. 1943-7870.0001217. ISSN 0733-9372.
BROWN R.M., MCCLELLAND N.I., DEININGER R.A., TOZER, R.G (1970). A water quality index-do we dare? Wat Sewage Wks 117:339–343.
CHATTERRJI C., RAZIUDDIN M. (2002). Determination of Water Quality Index of a Degraded River in Asanol industrial area, Raniganj, Burdwan West Bengal. Nature, Environment and pollution technology, 12(2), 181-189.
CORDY A., GAIL E. (2014). A Primer on Water Quality. (https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-027-01/). USGS.
ELISABET Y., FELEKE Z., BHAGWAN S.C. (2019). Assessment of the quality of bottled water marketed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 33(1), 21-41
FENG Y., DANYING Q., BAO Q., LIN M., XIGANG X., YOU. Z., XIAOGANG, W. (2016). Improvement of CCME WQI using grey relational method. J Hydrol. 543: 316–323.
GAZZAZ N.M., YUSOFF M.K., ARIS A.Z., JUAHIR H., RAMLI M.F. (2012). Artificial neural network modeling of the water quality index for Kinta River (Malaysia) using water quality variables as predictors, Marine Pollution Bulletn. 64, 2409-2420.
GHREFAT H.A. (2013). Classification and evaluation of commercial bottled drinking waters in Saudi Arabia. Res. J. Environ. Earth Sci., 5, 210-218.
HORTON R.K. (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. J. Water Pollu. Cont. Fed., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 300-305.
ICYIMPAYE A. (2019). Assessment of the quality of bottled drinking water produced in african cities: a case study of Kigali, Rwanda. An Msc dissertation, Pan-African University Institute for water and energy sciences (including climate change).
ISMAIL A., ROBESCU, L.D. (2017). Chemical water quality assessment of the Danube River in the lower course using water quality indices, U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series B. 79, 51-61.
JANAN T. (2015.). Quality Assessment Of Some Bottled Water That Available In. Journal of University of Zakho, Vol.1(A). No.2.
JOHNSON D.L., AMBROSE S.H., BASSETT T.J., BOWEN M.L., CRUMMEY D.E., ISAACSON J.S., JOHNSON D.N., LAMB P., SAUL, M., WINTER-NELSON, A.E. (1997). Meanings of Environmental Terms. Journal of Environmental Quality, 26 (3): 581-589. doi:10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600030002x
MOMANI A.K. (2006). Chemical assessment of bottled drinking waters by IC, GC, and ICP-MS. Instrumentation Sci. Technol., 34, 587-605.
MUNTA S., FYINBU B.T. AND JAMES J.M. (2021). Mathematical representation of water quality of three selected wells in the three wards of zing metropolis, Nigeria. Global Scientific Journal GSJ, Volume 9, Issue 9, pp 1715- 1721.
NIGERIAN INDUSTRIAL STANDARD (NIS-554-2015). Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality.
NWAOGAZIE O., OSAMUDIAMEN P., BOVWE O. (2018). Modeling groundwater quality index based on sensitivity analysis for wet and dry seasons in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 799-805.
PRESTON S.D. (2019). SPARROW MODELING—Enhancing Understanding of the Nation's Water Quality. USGS – via US Dep of Interior.
REECE H., JANE B. (2013). Campbell Biology (10 ed.). Pearson. p. 48. ISBN 9780321775658.
SASIKARAN S., SRITHARAN K., BALAKUMAR S., ARASARATNAM, V. (2012). Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water. Ceylon Med. J., 57, 111-116.
STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD (310.doc. 2010). The Clean Water Team Guidance Compendium for Watershed Monitoring and Assessment. Waterboards.ca.gov
TANG T., STROKAL M., VLIET V., MICHELLE T.H., SEUNTJENS P., BUREK P., KROEZE C., LANGAN S.I., WADA Y. (2019). Bridging global, basin and local-scale water quality modeling towards enhancing water quality management worldwide. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 36: 39-48. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2018.10.004.
TYAGI S.H., SHARMA B., SINGH P., DOBHAL R. (2013). Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index. Am J Water Resources, 1: 34-38. doi: 10.12691/ajwr-1-3-3
UN. (2018). The sustainable development goals report. New York: United Nations.
UNW-DPAC. (2015). The human right to water and sanitation, media brief. 50014 Zaragoza, Spain.
WHO (2014). Guidelines for drinking water quality, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
WHO. (2017). Guidelines for drinking-water quality: fourth edition. Incorporating the First Addendum, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO. (2019). Retrieved from New report on inequalities in access to water, sanitation and hygiene: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/18-06-2019-1-in-3-peopleglobally-do-not-have-access-to-safe-drinking-water-–-unicef-who
WHO-UNICEF-JMP. (2017). Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2017 update and SDG baselines. Switzerland: WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.
YUSUF M.B., ELIJAH E.U., JAURO A., AYESUKWE R.I., YUSUF I. (2020). Impact of land use changes on agricultural land use: evidence from Jalingo region of Taraba State, Nigeria. Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, 24(6): 1-12.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Salihu Munta, Abednego James, Joseph Munta James
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.