Heavy metal ions removal from oil wastewater using highly enhanced Chitosan membrane technology: a response surface methodology study
Keywords:Chitosan, Membrane, Removal, pH
This paper investigates the removal of heavy metal ions from oily wastewater using enhanced Chitosan Membrane. Cellulose and gelatin have been used successfully to modify chitosan. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X - Ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize chitosan. We looked at the impacts of pH solution and conductivity. To eliminate the heavy metals, adsorption study was conducted. Results showed removal percentages higher than 90% especially when the initial pH is 7.50 and the volume of Hexane is 12 mL. Conductivities of wastewater were positive and negative depending on whether the medium is acidic and basic respectively and values higher than +260 mV and lower than –340 mV were observed. Experiments were designed employing Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology to examine the effects of experimental conditions (RSM). R2 values for analysis of variances of Cu2+, Fe2+, and Pb2+ were all almost the same at 0.99. The quadratic models appeared significant and adequate in evaluating the experimental results. The differences in experimental and projected % Removal values were negligible for all models. The 3D response surface plots that resulted permitted paired analysis of variable impacts on each response model.
Abdel-Hakim, A. et al. (2021) ‘Performance evaluation of modified fabricated cotton membrane for oil/water separation and heavy metal ions removal’, Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, 27(4), pp. 933–945. doi: 10.1002/vnl.21866.
Adeleye, A. O. et al. (2018) ‘Effect of microorganisms in the bioremediation of spent engine oil and petroleum related environmental pollution’, Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 22(2), p. 157. doi: 10.4314/jasem.v22i2.1.
Akbari Zadeh, M., Daghbandan, A. and Abbasi Souraki, B. (2022) ‘Removal of iron and manganese from groundwater sources using nano-biosorbents’, Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture, 9(1), pp. 1–14. doi: 10.1186/s40538-021-00268-x.
Chen, Q. et al. (2020) ‘Synthesis and solution properties of a novel hyperbranched polymer based on chitosan for enhanced oil recovery’, Polymers, 12(9), pp. 1–24. doi: 10.3390/POLYM12092130.
Chiono, V. et al. (2008) ‘Genipin-crosslinked chitosan/gelatin blends for biomedical applications’, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 19(2), pp. 889–898. doi: 10.1007/s10856-007-3212-5.
Deshmukh, K. et al. (2017) ‘Biopolymer Composites With High Dielectric Performance: Interface Engineering’, Biopolymer Composites in Electronics, pp. 27–128. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809261-3.00003-6.
Doshi, B. et al. (2017) ‘Effectiveness of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan on destabilization of Marine Diesel, Diesel and Marine-2T oil for oil spill treatment’, Carbohydrate Polymers, 167, pp. 326–336. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.03.064.
Fathy, M., Selim, H. and Shahawy, A. E. L. (2020) ‘Chitosan/MCM-48 nanocomposite as a potential adsorbent for removing phenol from aqueous solution’, RSC Advances, 10(39), pp. 23417–23430. doi: 10.1039/d0ra02960b.
Fideles, T. B. et al. (2018) ‘Characterization of Chitosan Membranes Crosslinked by Sulfuric Acid’, OALib, 05(01), pp. 1–13. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1104336.
Guo, W. et al. (2022) ‘Electrospinning PAN/PEI/MWCNT-COOH nanocomposite fiber membrane with excellent oil-in-water separation and heavy metal ion adsorption capacity’, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 641(February), p. 128557. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2022.128557.
Islam, B. (2015) ‘Petroleum sludge, its treatment and disposal: A review’, International Journal of Chemical Sciences, 13(4), pp. 1584–1602.
Islam, S., Arnold, L. and Padhye, R. (2015) ‘Comparison and characterisation of regenerated chitosan from 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and chitosan from crab shells’, BioMed Research International, 2015, pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1155/2015/874316.
Khalifa, R. E. et al. (2019) ‘Efficient eco-friendly crude oil adsorptive chitosan derivatives: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies’, Desalination and Water Treatment, 159(January), pp. 269–281. doi: 10.5004/dwt.2019.24166.
Khatri, N., Tyagi, S. and Rawtani, D. (2017) ‘Recent strategies for the removal of iron from water: A review’, Journal of Water Process Engineering, 19(13), pp. 291–304. doi: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2017.08.015.
Lakra, R., Balakrishnan, M. and Basu, S. (2021) ‘Development of cellulose acetate-chitosan-metal organic framework forward osmosis membrane for recovery of water and nutrients from wastewater’, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 9(5), p. 105882. doi: 10.1016/J.JECE.2021.105882.
Li, S., Li, Z. and Sun, X. (2017) ‘Effect of flue gas and n-hexane on heavy oil properties in steam flooding process’, Fuel, 187, pp. 84–93. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.09.050.
De Lima, M. S. P. et al. (2009) ‘Chitosan membranes modified by contact with poly(acrylic acid)’, Carbohydrate Research, 344(13), pp. 1709–1715. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2009.05.024.
Ma, Z. et al. (2022) ‘Sustainable electrospray polymerization fabrication of thin-film composite polyamide nanofiltration membranes for heavy metal removal’, Desalination, 539(July), p. 115952. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2022.115952.
Marafi, A., Albazzaz, H. and Rana, M. S. (2019) ‘Hydroprocessing of heavy residual oil: Opportunities and challenges’, Catalysis Today, 329, pp. 125–134. doi: 10.1016/J.CATTOD.2018.10.067.
Mishra, P. et al. (2018) ‘Photohydrogen production from dark-fermented palm oil mill effluent (DPOME) and statistical optimization: Renewable substrate for hydrogen’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 199, pp. 11–17. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.028.
Mitura, S., Sionkowska, A. and Jaiswal, A. (2020) ‘Biopolymers for hydrogels in cosmetics: review’, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 31(6). doi: 10.1007/s10856-020-06390-w.
Mruthunjayappa, M. H. et al. (2020) ‘Engineering a Biopolymer-Based Ultrafast Permeable Aerogel Membrane Decorated with Task-Specific Fe-Al Nanocomposites for Robust Water Purification’, ACS Applied Bio Materials, 3(8), pp. 5233–5243. doi: 10.1021/acsabm.0c00630.
Nwobi-Okoye, C. C. and Uzochukwu, C. U. (2020) ‘RSM and ANN modeling for production of Al 6351/ egg shell reinforced composite: Multi objective optimization using genetic algorithm’, Materials Today Communications, 22(September 2019), p. 100674. doi: 10.1016/j.mtcomm.2019.100674.
Omer, A. M. et al. (2021) ‘Removal of oil spills by novel developed amphiphilic chitosan-g-citronellal schiff base polymer’, Scientific Reports, 11(1), pp. 1–16. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99241-9.
Prajapati, N. et al. (2022) ‘Microwave assisted biodiesel production: Assessment of optimization via RSM techniques’, Materials Today: Proceedings, 57, pp. 1637–1644. doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2021.12.243.
Rayhani, M., Simjoo, M. and Chahardowli, M. (2022) ‘Effect of water chemistry on the stability of water-in-crude oil emulsion: Role of aqueous ions and underlying mechanisms’, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 211(January), p. 110123. doi: 10.1016/j.petrol.2022.110123.
Sakwanichol, J., Sungthongjeen, S. and Puttipipatkhachorn, S. (2019) ‘Preparation and characterization of chitosan aqueous dispersion as a pharmaceutical film forming material’, Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 54, p. 101230. doi: 10.1016/J.JDDST.2019.101230.
Sankaran, A. et al. (2019) ‘Effect of atmospheric humidity on electrical conductivity of oil and implications in electrostatic atomization’, Fuel, 253(May), pp. 283–292. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.05.013.
Seetharaj, R. et al. (2019) ‘Dependence of solvents, pH, molar ratio and temperature in tuning metal organic framework architecture’, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 12(3), pp. 295–315. doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2016.01.003.
Sidek, N., Ninie, N. S. and Mohamad, S. (2017) ‘Efficient removal of phenolic compounds from model oil using benzyl Imidazolium-based ionic liquids’, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 240, pp. 794–802. doi: 10.1016/j.molliq.2017.05.111.
Da Silva Grem, I. C. et al. (2013) ‘Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry’, Polimeros, 23(6), pp. 705–711. doi: 10.4322/polimeros.2014.008.
Tiwari, S., Hasan, A. and Pandey, L. M. (2017) ‘A novel bio-sorbent comprising encapsulated Agrobacterium fabrum (SLAJ731) and iron oxide nanoparticles for removal of crude oil co-contaminant, lead Pb(II)’, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(1), pp. 442–452. doi: 10.1016/j.jece.2016.12.017.
Vaidyanathan, R. et al. (2010) ‘Enhanced silver nanoparticle synthesis by optimization of nitrate reductase activity’, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 75(1), pp. 335–341. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2009.09.006.
Wang, D. et al. (2016) ‘Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of dewatering properties of chitosan-grafting DMDAAC flocculants’, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 92, pp. 761–768. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.07.087.
Wolok, E. et al. (2020) ‘Study of bio-materials for removal of the oil spill’, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 13(23). doi: 10.1007/s12517-020-06244-3.
Xiao, G. et al. (2019) ‘Superior adsorption performance of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets for both cationic and anionic heavy metals from wastewater’, Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 27(2), pp. 305–313. doi: 10.1016/J.CJCHE.2018.09.028.
Yu, P. et al. (2020) ‘Continuous purification of simulated wastewater based on rice straw composites for oil/water separation and removal of heavy metal ions’, Cellulose, 27(9), pp. 5223–5239. doi: 10.1007/s10570-020-03135-4.
Zafar, A. M., Javed, M. A. and Aly Hassan, A. (2022) ‘Unprecedented biodesalination rates–Shortcomings of electrical conductivity measurements in determining salt removal by algae and cyanobacteria’, Journal of Environmental Management, 302(PA), p. 113947. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113947.
Zakuwan, S. Z. et al. (2021) ‘Functional hydrophilic membrane for oil–water separation based on modified bio-based chitosan–gelatin’, Polymers, 13(7), pp. 1–20. doi: 10.3390/polym13071176.
Zhao, S. et al. (2021) ‘An antifouling catechol/chitosan-modified polyvinylidene fluoride membrane for sustainable oil-in-water emulsions separation’, Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering, 15(4). doi: 10.1007/s11783-020-1355-5.
Zhu, Z. et al. (2021) ‘Sustainable, highly efficient and superhydrophobic fluorinated silica functionalized chitosan aerogel for gravity-driven oil/water separation’, Gels, 7(2). doi: 10.3390/gels7020066.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Wato N. Fundji, Ephraim Igberase, Peter O. Osifo, John Kabuba
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.