Soil hydromorphism in two saline and brackish system: classification, indicators and pedogenetic processes

Chiara Ferronato, Marco Contin, Maria De Nobili, Gloria Falsone, Elisa Pellegrini, Gilmo Vianello, Livia Vittori Antisari

Abstract


The introduction of the “subaqueous soils” into the international classification system of the Soil Taxonomy (2010) gives a possibility to soil scientists to use the pedogenetic approach to investigate coastal soils in view of resource protection and valorization. Coastal areas, in fact, are complex and fragile ecosystems whose ecological value is worldwide recognized, but generally highly inhabited and affected by different erosion and pollution phenomena, and flooding problems. The soil science has a great opportunity to contribute to the correct management and protection of coastal soils, by recognizing the value of coastal soils and thus investigating the effect of the water table oscillation and ionic composition to the changes of soil properties and functionality. This work represent a first attempt to describe the soil continuum existing from hydromorphic to subaqueous environment, highlighting the evidence of some pedogenetic processes into subaquatic substrates and demonstrating the high ecological values of these pedons.


Keywords


subaqueous soils; saline and brackish system; Soil Taxonomy; coastal areas; Grado and Marano lagoon

Full Text:

PDF (English)

References


AMOROSI A., CENTINEO M.C., COLALONGO M.L., FIORINI F. (2005) Millennial-scale depositional cycles from the Holocene of the Po Plain, Italy. Mar Geol 222-223:7–18. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2005.06.041

ARPA (2008) Sistema georeferenziato GIS e monitoraggio delle barriere artificiali sommerse. Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell’Ambiente del Friuli Venezia Giulia:Gestione sostenibile delle risorse alieutiche marine e lagunari.

BALDUFF D.M. (2007) Pedogenesis, inventory, and utilization of subaqueous soils in Chincoteague Bay, Maryland. 1–542.

BARBIER E.B., HACKER S.D., KENNEDY C., KOCH E.W., STIER A.D., SILLIMAN B.R. . (2011) The value of estuarine and coastal ecosystem services. Ecological Monographs, 81:169–193. doi: 10.1890/10-1510.1

BARKO J.W., GUNNISON D., CARPENTER S.R. (1991) Sediment interactions with submersed macrophyte growth and community dynamics. Aquat Bot., 41:41–65. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(91)90038-7

BENNETT S.J., BARRETT-LENNARD E.G., COLMER T.D. (2009) Salinity and waterlogging as constraints to saltland pasture production: A review. Agric Ecosyst Environ 129:349–360. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2008.10.013

BUSCAROLI A., DINELLI E., ZANNONI D. (2011) Geohydrological and environmental evolution of the area included among the lower course of the Lamone river and the Adriatic coast. EQA, 5:11–22.

BUSCAROLI A., ZANNONI D. (2010) Influence of ground water on soil salinity in the San Vitale Pinewood (Ravenna - Italy). Agrochimica 5:303–320.

CASTIGLIONI G.B., BIANCOTTI A., BONDESAN M., CORTEMIGLIA C., ELMI C., FAVERO V., GASPERI G., MARCHETTI G., OROMBELLI G., PELLEGRINI G.B., TELLINI C. (1999) Geomorphological map of the Po Plain, Italy, at a scale of 1:250 000. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 24:1115-1120, doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837.

CIDU, R., VITTORI ANTISARI, L., BIDDAU, R., BUSCAROLI A., DINELLI E., VIANELLO, G., ZANNONI, D. (2013) Dynamics of rare earth elements in water–soil systems: The case study of the Pineta San Vitale (Ravenna, Italy). Geoderma 193-194:52–67. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.10.009

de GROOT R., BRANDER L., VAN DER PLOEG S., COSTANZA R., BERNARD F., BRAAT L., CHRISTIE M., CROSSMAN N., GHERMANDI A., HEIN L., HUSSAIN S., KUMAR P., McVITTIE A., PORTELA, R., RODRIGUEZ, L.C., ten BRINK, P., Van BEUKERING, P., (2012) Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units. Ecosystem Service, 1:50–61. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.07.005

DEMAS G., RABENHORST M.C. (1999) Subaqueous Soils : Pedogenesis in a Submersed Environment. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:1250–1257.

DEMAS G.P., RABENHORST M.C. (2001) Factors of subaqueous soil formation: a system of quantitative pedology for submersed environments. Geoderma 102:189–204. doi: 10.1016/S0016-7061(00)00111-7

DING W., ZHANG Y., CAI Z. (2010) Impact of permanent inundation on methane emissions from a Spartina alterniflora coastal salt marsh. Atmos Environ 44:3894–3900. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.07.025

ELLIS J., CUMMINGS V., HEWITT J., THRUSH S., NORKKO A. (2002) Determining effects of suspended sediment on condition of a suspension feeding bivalve (Atrina zelandica): results of a survey, a laboratory experiment and a field transplant experiment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 267:147–174. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0981(01)00355-0

ERICH E., DROHAN P.J. (2012) Genesis of freshwater subaqueous soils following flooding of a subaerial landscape. Geoderma 179-180:53–62. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.02.004

FANNING D.S., FANNING M.C.B. (1989) Soil: Morphology, genesis, and classification. John Wiley & Sons, New York

FANNING D.S., RABENHORST M.C., BURCH S.N., ET AL (2002) Sulfides and sulfates. In: Soil mineralogy with environmental applications. SSSA, Madison, WI

FENCHEL T.M., RIEDL R.J. (1970) The sulfide system: a new biotic community underneath the oxidized layer of marine sand bottoms. Mar Biol 7:255–268. doi: 10.1007/BF00367496

FONTOLAN G., PILLON S., BEZZI A., VILLALTA R., LIPIZER M., TRICHES A., D'AIETTI A. (2012) Human impact and the historical transformation of saltmarshes in the Marano and Grado Lagoon, northern Adriatic Sea. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci.,113:41–56. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2012.02.007

FRIEDMAN S.P. (2005) Soil properties influencing apparent electrical conductivity: a review. Comput Electron Agric 46:45–70. doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2004.11.001

GEE G.W., BAUDER J.W. (1986) Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1—Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy

GÉNIN J-M.R., BOURRIÉ G., TROLARD F., ABDELMOULA M., JAFFREZIC A., REFAIT PH., MAÎTRE V., HUMBERT B.,HERBILLON A. (1998) Thermodynamic Equilibria in Aqueous Suspensions of Synthetic and Natural Fe(II)−Fe(III) Green Rusts: Occurrences of the Mineral in Hydromorphic Soils. Environ Sci Technol, 32:1058–1068. doi: 10.1021/es970547m

HALPERN B.S., WALBRIDGE S., SELKOE K.A., KAPPEL C.V., MICHELI .F, D'AGROSA C., BRUNO J.F., CASEY K.S., EBERT C., FOX H.E., FUJITA R., HEINEMANN D., LENIHAN H.S., MADIN E.M., PERRY M.T., SELIG E.R., SPALDING M., STENECK R., WATSON R.. (2008) A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:948–52. doi: 10.1126/science.1149345

IPCC AR4 SYR (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC. Pachauri R.K; and Reisinger A., ed.

LOTZE H.K., LENIHAN H.S., BOURQUE B.J., BRADBURY R.H., COOKE R.G., KAY M.C., KIDWELL S.M., KIRBY M.X., PETERSON C.H., JACKSON J.B.C. (2006) Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science 312:1806–9. doi: 10.1126/science.1128035

MARINARI S., CARBONE S., VITTORI ANTISARI L., GREGO S., VIANELLO G. (2012) Microbial activity and functional diversity in Psamment soils in a forested coastal dune-swale system. Geoderma 173-174:249–257. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.12.023

McVEY S., SCHOENEBERGER P.J., TURENNE J., PAYNE M., WYSOCKI D.A., STOLT M. (2012) Subaqueous soils (SAS) description. In: Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils, 3rd edn. National Soil Survey Center Natural Resources Conservation Service U.S. Department of Agriculture,

MEYER K.M., KUMP L.R. (2008) Oceanic Euxinia in Earth History: Causes and Consequences. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 36:251–288. doi: 10.1146/annurev.earth.36.031207.124256

REDDY R.K., DeLAUME D. (2008) Biochemistry of wetlands. Science and applications. Taylor & Francis

RICHARDSON J.L., VEPRASKAS M.J., CRAFT C.B. (2001) Wetland Soils: Genesis, Hydrology, Landscapes, and Classification. Lewis Scientific Publ., Boca Raton, FL.

RODEN E.E. (2004) Analysis of long-term bacterial vs. chemical Fe(III) oxide reduction kinetics. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:3205–3216. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2004.03.028

ROSE A.L., WAITE T.D. (2003) Kinetics of iron complexation by dissolved natural organic matter in coastal waters. Mar Chem 84:85–103. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4203(03)00113-0

SALAMA R.B., OTTO C.J., FITZPATRICK R.W. (1999) Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization. Hydrogeol J 7:46–64. doi: 10.1007/s100400050179

SCHAETZL R.J., ANDERSON S. (2005) Soils: Genesis and Geomorphology. Cambridge University Press

SCHOENEBERGER P., WYSOCKI D.A., BENHAM E.C.J. (2012) Field book for describing and sampling soils, Version 3.0. Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, , NE.

SOIL SURVEY STAFF (2010) Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 11th edn. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service

SOIL SURVEY STAFF (2014) Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th edn. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service

SURABIAN D.A. (2007) Moorings : An Interpretation from the Coastal Zone Soil Survey of Little Narragansett Bay , Connecticut and Rhode Island. 92:90–92.

VEGGIANI A. (1974) Le ultime vicende geologiche del ravennate. In: Influenza di insediamenti industriali sul circostante ambiente naturale – Studio sulla Pineta di San Vitale di Ravenna.

VITTORI ANTISARI L., CARBONE S., FERRONATO C., SIMONI A., VIANELLO G. (2011) Characterization of heavy metals atmospheric deposition for urban environmental quality in the Bologna city (Italy). EQA 7:49–63.

VODYANITSKII Y.N., SHOBA S.A. (2014) Disputable issues in interpreting the results of chemical extraction of iron compounds from soils. Eurasian Soil Sci 47:573–580. doi: 10.1134/S106422931406009X

WORM B., BARBIER E.B., BEAUMONT N., SALA E., SELKOE K.A., STACHOWICZ J.J., WATSON R. (2006) Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314:787–90. doi: 10.1126/science.1132294

ZUO P., ZHAO S., LIU C., WANG C., LIANG Y. (2012) Distribution of Spartina spp. along China’s coast. Ecol Eng 40:160–166. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.12.014




DOI: 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/5803

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2015 Chiara Ferronato, Marco Contin, Maria De Nobili, Gloria Falsone, Elisa Pellegrini, Gilmo Vianello, Livia Vittori Antisari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.

Creative Commons License

Online ISSN 2281-4485

The journal is hosted and mantained by ABIS-AlmaDL. [privacy]