Evaluation of endocrine disruptors in the environment of Eket Metropolis in Nigeria: an insight into public health and risk assessment


  • Victor Eshu Okpashi Department of Biochemistry, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar
  • Agnes Edet Asuquo Offiong Department of Environmental Education, University of Calabar
  • Etim Nkanu Efut Department of Environmental Education, University of Calabar
  • Ogre Gabriel Ogre Department of Environmental Education, University of Calabar




endocrine disruptors, risk, monitoring, aquatic pollution, hazard


The adverse effect of some environmental contaminants on the endocrine system was investigated using the Risk Analysis Framework. The aim was to ascertain the level of EDCs in fish species and potable water. The research employed ecological examination approach. The samples from the environmental media with serious threat and links to humans and animals exposed to endocrine disruptors were water and fish. Twelve boreholes water samples were disproportionately and purposefully collected, while another twelve water samples were collected from Qua Iboe River one kilometer stretched forth. Also, six species of fresh fish including - Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulates), Catfish (Clarias gariepinus), African red snapper (Lutjanus agennes), Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Yellowtail (Seriola lalandi), and Great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda) were used. Both the water and fish samples were screened for endocrine disrupting substances with gas chromatography linking mass spectroscopy. The analysis (results) detected 8% phenol dichloro-4-nitro-, 1, 3, 5-Triazine, and 3% Triazine 2-chloro-4-, 6-bis-methylthio, octadecenamide in borehole water. Butyl ethyl, hexyl phthalate, indolizine 6%, 4-methyl phenyl, cyclohexane, 3-dione 27%, 2-allylamine methylene 5, 5-hydroxyphenyl 8%, and menazon 17% were discovered in all the species of fish. Phthalate, butyl undecyl esters, 2-ethyl hexyl was 4%, and 7% of isohexyl propyl in Qua Iboe River. The results call for the attention of the regulatory body to put in place measures that will stem the impending disaster this may create in the reproductive capacity of the exposed population.


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How to Cite

Okpashi, V. E., Offiong, A. E. A., Efut, E. N., & Ogre, O. G. (2020). Evaluation of endocrine disruptors in the environment of Eket Metropolis in Nigeria: an insight into public health and risk assessment. EQA - International Journal of Environmental Quality, 37(2), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2281-4485/9364