Evaluation of Physico-chemical water quality treatment efficiency: A Case study of Jambussi Water Headworks in the Upper West Region of Ghana.

Napoleon Jackson Mensah, Emmanuel Amankwah, Thomas Atta-Darkwa, Godfred Etsey Sebiawu

Abstract


Water is very important for the sustenance of life and has no substitute and therefore its quality cannot be compromised. This research is to examine the treatment efficiency and the physicochemical quality of drinking water from the Jambussi water headworks from the raw water source to the final consumer at the tap to establish the quality of the water being treated for drinking in the Wa West District and the Wa Municipality, Upper West Region of Ghana. Samples of water were taken from four stages of the treatment processes during the dry season (February-March) and at the onset of the rains in (May-June) 2019. 1.5L bottles properly rinsed, sterilized and labelled were used to take the samples at each point of the process. The samples were then stored in cold ice chest containing ice cubes and transported to the laboratory for analysis within 24 hours. The parameters considered were Temperature, pH, Total Hardness, Ca and Mg Hardness, Manganese, Alkalinity, Turbidity, Colour, Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, F-,Cu2+, K+, Al3+, SO42 and S-. The results showed that all the parameters analyzed including metals recorded were all below the WHO standards for drinking water at different stages of treatment to the final consumer. Some of the parameters were above the WHO standards at the raw water stage but fall within the standards after treatment. The efficiency of the system was observed to be very good and the quality of the water produced also meets the WHO standards for drinking and other purposes. The research was concluded with recommendations to improve and maintain the water quality for drinking including further research to examine the quality of water produced at other water treatment facilities across the country.

 


Full Text:

PDF (English)

References


American Public Health Association (APHA), (2005). Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water. New York, 20th Edition. Washington DC. USA.Pp. 1268.

Buchholz, A., R. (1993). Principles of Environmental Management. 2nd edition. The greening of Business. Pp 179 – 187

Cunningham, S. (1999). Environmental Science; A Global concern, 5th edition, the McGraw-Hill Companies, USA, pp 439 – 440, 451.

Darko-Mantey, J., Wuni, R. and Nyamadi, A.K.M. (2005). Determination of physicochemical and biological properties of sachet water considering tap, well and spring as source. BSc Dissertation Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Dean, H.T. (1942). Epidemiological study in the United States. In: Moulton F.R. (ed). fluorine and dental health. DC, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS publication No.19).

Delisle, C.E. and Schmidt, J.W. (1977). The effects of sulphur on water and aquatic life in Canada. In: Sulphur and its inorganic derivatives in the Canadian environment. NRCC No. 15015, Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

Drobenja, V. V., Pozin, S. G., Buraya, V. V., Kremko, L. M. and Rudik, V. A., 2003, Ecological and hygienic monitoring of drinking water quality from centralized water supply, in: Materials of Water Forum. September 30- October 1, 2003. Minsk: CNIIKIVR, 136-138. (In Russian)

Eisenberg, M.J. Magnesium deficiency and sudden death. Am Heart J. 1992 Aug; 124(2):544-9.

Ghana National Water Policy. Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing. https://www.gwcl.com.gh/national_water_policy.pdf, 2007

Ghana Statistical Service (2010). National Population and Housing Census, 2010. Ghana Publishing Corporation, Accra.

GNA (2018). Human activity threatening management of Black Volta Basin – WRC https://www.businessghana.com/site/news/general/161885/Human-activity-threatening-management-of-Black-Volta-Basin-WRC. (Retrieved on 29 / 07 / 2019)

Higgins, I.J. and Burns, R.G.: The Chemistry and Microbiology of Pollution. Academic Press, London, 1975.

Hlavinek P., Kukharchyk, T., Marsalek J. and Mahrikova I.(2005). Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Integrated Urban Water Resources Management. Senec, Slovak Republic, Springer.

Keller, W. and Pitblade, J.R. (1986). Water quality changes in Sudbury area lakes: a comparison of synoptic surveys in 1974-1976 and 1981-1983. Water Air Soil Pollut., 29: 285.

Kempster, P.L., Van Vliet, H.R. and Kuhn, A. (1991). The need for guideline to bridge the gap between idea drinking water quality and quality which is practically available and acceptable. Water SA 23 (2). 163-167

Patel S. A. and Shah L.D. (2008). Water management: Conservation, Harvesting and Artificial Recharge. New age international, New Delhi

Pestle, S. (1997). Fairing water scarcities. World Watch Environmental Alert Series, 38, 239.

Slooff, W. (1988). Basis document fluoride. Bilthoven, Netherlands, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Report No. 758474005).

Thomas, J.F, J. (1953). Industrial water resources of Canada. Water Survey Rep. No.1. Scope, Procedure, and Interpretation of Survey Studies. Queen’s Printer, Ottawa.

Tölgyessy J., 1993. Chemistry and biology of water, air and soil environmental aspects: Studies in environmental science 53. Amsterdam, Elsevier.

United Nations (2016). Transforming our world. The 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development, A/RES/70/1. https://www. Sustainable development.un.org, 2016. (Retrieved on 8/07/2019).

United Nation Development Programme (2016). Sustainable Development Goals. https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/ sustainable-development-goals/goal-15-life-on-land.html. 2016. (Retrieved on 8/07/2019)

WHO (2000). Global water supply and sanitation assessment 2000 report. Geneva / New York. World Health Organization/United Nations Children’s Fund.

WHO (2004). Guidelines for drinking water quality. Vol. 1. Recommendations (3rd ed). Geneva. World Health Organization.

World Health Organization (1984). Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information. Ch. 16. Geneva. pp. 145-15.




DOI: 10.6092/issn.2281-4485/9769

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Napoleon Jackson Mensah, Emmanuel Amankwah, Thomas Atta-Darkwa, Godfred Etsey Sebiawu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.